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[期刊论文] 金 承哲
摘要:Ian Wilmut’s Dolly the Cloned Sheep (1977) and Peter Sloterdijk’s Regeln für den Menschenpark (1999) have combined to raise new questions about the essence of the life. The cloning technique that made the birth of Dolly possible has not yet, as far as we know, to be attempted on human beings. It does not seem that the Menschenpark (human park), a society in which our lives are controlled totally by gene technology, lies in our near future, either. Still, the progress made to date the imagination of possible future consequences give us important clues for understanding the meaning of life itself. In the same way that Sloterdijk relates the history of the rise of Anthropotechnik to the decline of the humanistic tradition of the West, we may need to look on gene technology not only as a new kit of scientific-technological tools, but also as symbols of the impending arrival of a new conception of what a human being is and to what end humans are to be educated. This essay examines some of the main points of Sloterdijk’s work with an eye to suggest what adjustments to his discourse about the Menschenpark might be required for the way philosophy and theology have traditionally understood what it is to be human....
[期刊论文] 松野 憲二
1980年 41期
摘要:It is a well known fact that contemporary schools are facing a number of problems. Various solutions are presented and attempts at reform are made. Nevertheless the situation which is supposed to be remedied turns out more and more serious. One of the reasons for that is that the present situation is emptied to such a degree that its emptiness being formally established, is looked upon as an ordinary state of matters; another reason lies in the convictions about education which make it impossible to realise that actually schools are facing a crisis ; hence means and ways for a reform were sought in the mode of the schools of old Japan, and by matching their reality with the modern school, a principle for the regeneration of the school was sought. Thus schools can function properly standing firmly on a modern point of view.
The principle here discovered leads to a theory alien to a formalistic consideration of age differences, alien to a fixed view of treating patterns and curricular theories, it is a theory of the meaning of the learning motivation, it is a theory of the relation between politics and education, in a sense an all-too obvious theory. The formation of a consciousness for which this principle is deemed absolutely necessary, was discussed with the end in view that this formation will eventually result from it....
[期刊论文] 新井 保幸
1980年 41期
摘要:E. Krieck was a supporter of a 'pure science of Education' as well as of the ideology of Nazism. In this paper the attempt is made to discuss the connection between these two aspects.
Krieck was aligned with Nazism before he developed his theory of pure science of education; there was a reason why he supported Nazism. The reason is that this was the ideology of the petit bourgeois class.
The 'pure science of education' is based on two principles. The first is the principle of the superiority of 'the whole' over the 'particular', the second is the principle of discussing being (facts) while not discussing oughtness. The 'whole' in the first principle signifies concretely speaking the national community. Furthermore, the ontological proposition ('the whole anteceds the particular'.), includes the ethical conclusion ('the particular must follow the whole'). Hence the first principle postulates the integration into the national community, i.e. the pre-existing order of rank. This is so because the national community is the only group within which the petit bourgeois exposed to oppression from above and to threat from below, can identify himself. As to the second principle, this is from the beginning destined to destroy itself because it contradicts the first principle which is an expression of faith. But the hypocritical conscience of following the second principle makes its advocate fall a prey to the illusion as if he were not speaking of a subjective faith but of objective facts. Nazism and 'pure science of education' are thus combined in Krieck's thought....
[期刊论文] 笹田 博通
1988年 57期
摘要:Die Philosophie Martin Heideggers, auf dem Standpunkt 'das Denken des Seins', beruht auf der Bewegung (Transzendenz) des Menschseins als In-der-Welt-sein (die endliche Freiheit), und bezeugt damit den wesentlichen Bezug des Seins auf den Menschen. Theodor Ballauff -ein Pädagoge, der das 'Denken des Seins' zur Norm nimmt- findet in diesem Zeugnis die Grundlage für Erziehung, welche den Menschen zu seiner Menschlichkeit befreit. Nach Ballauff besteht die hervorragende Bedeutung der Erziehung darin, den Menschen, der sein Selbst ins Gesamt-Seiende verlor, zum 'Horisont der Erziehung' (Sein) zu rufen, und so das Selbst zum (dem eigenen fremden) Seienden sich verhalten zu lassen. Solange aber Erziehung eine Handlung ist, die zwischen Menschen (Seienden) stattfindet, kann sie diese Aufgabe nicht unmittelbar erfüllen. Das besagt die Moglichkeit des Scheiterns in der Erziehung, welche den Menschen zu seiner Menschlichkeit zu befreien versucht.Wie kann man diese Moglichkeit des Scheiterns vermeiden ? Meine Abhandlung versucht, diese in der Heidegger-Interpretation Ballauffs liegende Aporie zu losen....
[期刊论文] 小玉 重夫
1994年 69期
摘要:How we can consider the relation between diversity and integration in public education, is a very serious question in contemporary U. S. A. Hannah Arendt is one of the most important thinkers who dealt with this problem. Focusing on the context of the Civil Rights Problem in the 1950ies, I elucidate her critical thought on integrated education. In doing so, I try to draw out the specific viewpoint on the public character of education which is entirely different from the liberal viewpoint.
Hanna Arendt criticized the Federal decision to start integration in the public schools. For her, the validity of equality is clearly restricted to the political realm. Hence, equality should not be extended to the social realm. She also warned that, by abolishing the authority of the adults, progressive education might implicitly deny their responsibility for the world into which they have borne their children.
Her critical thought on integrated education raises an important viewpoint on the public character of education in which minorities can exist without assimilating to the dominant culture....
[期刊论文] 久保田 健一郎
2003年 87期
摘要:The present paper pursues the possibility of contemplating about education or about the human being, even after the death of the human and of the concomitant death of their education. Such an attempt will pose a fundamental challenge to conventional thinking because the former tries to contemplate about those concepts posthumously. A new concept of education replete with novel possibilities is expected to emerge.
For this purpose, the author will present, firstly, as an alternative to the conventional super-historical pedagogy, the design of historical-pedagogic-anthropology. This anthropology regards the object of analysis as an historical construct. Then, from the standpoint of historical-pedagogic-anthropology, he will restore mimesis, which had been banished from the educational domain to the aesthetic one, in an educational, and especially in educators', domain. By analyzing the narration about a wild child from the point of view of mimesis, one can witness humanism, which underpinns the concept of education, disintegrate from within. Nonetheless, the collapse of humanism is not the collapse of education itself. With the affirmation of the difference between those who educate and those who are educated, there will be revived anew the concept of education....
[期刊论文] 山名 淳
1989年 59期
摘要:In this paper the problems around 'Mündigkeit' which forms the central idea underlying Kant's question, “what is enlightenment?” are examined. As a result it becomes clear that in his famous statements dealing with the definition of enlightenment, while he had the strong desire to deal consciously with enlightenment, yet on the other hand he felt some anxiety caused by the difficulty involved in such an attempt. It seems that this anxiety was connected with the tension between ' Mündigkeit' on one side and the guarding act on the other side (guarding on one hand was aimed at ' Mündigkeit', on the other hand, however guarding may include the possibility of suppressing 'Mündigkeit').
Furthermore, this uneasiness of Kant is also part of his educational theory which belongs to what is generally admitted to have been the eighteenth century optimistic view on education. The author argues that Kant suggests that the person engaged in education as well as the person talking about education may possibly suppress the 'Mündigkeit' of other persons and that this anxiety became a major factor causing a certain inconsistency in his statements on education....
[期刊论文] 青柳 宏幸
2006年 93期
摘要:The purpose of this paper is to clarify the distinctive features of Karl Marx's educational thought. Many studies on Marx fail to distinguish Marxism from Marx. However, Marx's thought is different from Marxism and has distinctively historical meanings. This paper pays attention to Marx's criticism of Max Stirner in “Die deutsche Ideologie”. Because Stirner developed the criticism of pedagogy in “Der Einzige und sein Eigentum”, Marx's educational thought can be reconstructed by means of Marx's criticism of Stirner.
Stirner assumed that the rule of the spirit by the concept of “Man” was a distinctive feature of modernity and that education was its means. He criticized the suppression of the individual by “Man”. Before Stirner's book was published Marx had envigioned “Communism as the real appropriation of the human essence by and for man”. Stirner' s criticism turned out to match this Vision of communism and awakened Marx from philosophical consciousness. Marx thus stopped regarding the human essence as the assumption of the discussion and came to understand it as “the ensemble of social relations” based on the materialistic view of history. He called the refusal of this human essence theory the settlement of account with philosophical conscience. Because Stirner's pedagogy was based upon the assumption of the human essence, it can be considered that the settlement of account with philosophical conscience implied the settlement of account with pedagogical conscience. Marx changed the way of viewing pedagogy of terms of the human essence theory by explaining how such an idea as “Man” was abstracted from material relations....
[期刊论文] 津田 謙治
摘要:Apologists preached the existence of God using the argument in the Old Testament. Because the complete New Testament was absent in the second century, the Old Testament played a great role in the Christian doctrine. However this was no match for discussion with the philosophers of the day, since it was written for the Jews thousands of years before. Consequently, they must have tried to answer opponent’s questions by interpreting the Old Testament. Of these questions, this essay addresses the concept of location. It has been argued by Plato, Aristotle, and Stoicism, but the apologists (e.g., Justin the martyr, Theophilus of Antioch, and Athenagoras of Athens) could not use it in the same way, because the anthropomorphic God in the Old Testament never corresponded to the abstract philosophical concept of location. This essay analyzes how they addressed this question and in turn attempts to examine its relationship with early Christian thought....
[期刊论文] 大塚 恵一
1980年 41期
摘要:In search of the educational means by which the autonomous judgment and the productive activity of the child can be fostered, an attempt was made at the philosophical and anthropological aspect of 'dialogue' based on some particular practice research. Indeed, class teaching which is essentially directed toward an end, aiming at establishing factual relationships, has an aspect which seems to be difficult to be reconciled with a dialogue situation with its open-ended incompleteness and its leisurely character. But is it not possible to combine 'dialogue' in educational and learning activities when one interprets the meaning of 'dialogical' as aiming at an attitude of the thinking subject? In contrast to O. F. Bollnow's theory of 'education toward dialogue' light can be thrown on the problem from the practical and didactic viewpoint of 'through dialogue'.
Through an education stressing a 'dialogical' engagement involving the own and the other personality, a social intelligence transcending the individual intelligence may be formed.
Furthermore, such an education will be an 'education aiming at speaking'. But here a particular and difficult problem of human formation lies hidden in relation to the peculiarly Japanese and oriental type of taciturnity and silence....
[期刊论文] 坂越 正樹
1993年 68期
摘要:H. Nohl's Auffassung von der Reformpädagogik ist als eine Art Kanon angesehen worden, Dieser Kanon und die Richtigkeit der darauf beruhenden geschichtlichen Darstellung ist bereits kritisch beleuchtst worden - in diesem Aufsatz soil die Bedeutung und die Funktion dieses Kanons als solchen hinterfragt werden.
Meine Überlegungen werden wie folgt entwickelt; Erstens : Nach einem Überblick über die reformpädagogische Diskussion in der deutschen Erziehungswissenschaft wird H. Nohl's Selbstverständis der Reformpädagogik erläutert. Meines Erachtens war es Nohl's Wunsch, die Reformpädagogik als einheitliche Bewegung für den Wiederaufbau des Bildungswesens seines Volkes auszurichten. Zweitens : Indem die Distanz zwischen Nohl's Kanon und der Reformpädagogik festgestellt wird, zeigt es sich kiar, daß Nohl's Kanon eine kulturpädagogische Rekonstruktion der Reformpädagogik war. Dadurch wurde die radikale Ausrichtung der Reformpädagogik gezügelt und sie konnte dann große Auswirkungen auf die deutsche Pädagogik gewinnen....
[期刊论文] 野平 慎二
1997年 76期
摘要:This paper discusses the possibility of the rebirth of Pestalozzi as a classical author in pedagogical historiography. For some time by now Pestalozzi's pedagogical values have been based on his establishment of the 'Bildung' idea. Since the arrival of Luhmann/Shchorr's 'Reflexionsproblem im Erziehungssystem' at the latest, however, Pestalozzi's status as a classical author has undergone considerable depreciation because the former sentenced Pestalozzi's idea of 'Bildung' as dysfunctional as a normative guideline for the decision of modern pedagogical problems.
This paper examines the recent works by Oelkers and Osterwalder which demythologize Pestalozzi. They pose a radical challenge to the established scholarship on Pestalozzi by claiming that the whole Pestalozzi studies so far have simply contributed to his mythologization.
I will argue that the salient accomplishment of demythologization consists in the destruction of the authoritative structure of the past Pestalozzi studies which had the effect of preventing new approaches to the subject, as well as in its location of a new ideological and social context of Pestalozzi's pedagogical ideas. At the same time, however, my analysis shows that the demythologization takes us nowhere with regards to the rebirth of Pestalozzi. Thus I would like to conclude that a way out for the program of his rebirth may be found in Luhmann's suggestion to the effect that the subject matter of study should not be confounded with theory or problem solving. In other words, we should refrain from trying to solve current problems by analyzing classical works. For analysis of classical works becomes valuable only when they are simultaneouly sustained by our theoretical interest in the construction of new theories which will serve for the pedagogical decision making in our own days....
[期刊论文] 石田 理
1963年 8期
摘要:The thought of Dogen, which makes the dialectic of Zen meditation the direct path to the Way of the Buddha assumes that the triad-Faith, Action, Realization are one. This teaching can be condensed into the acetical training of Zazen, inherent in which is the dialectic of absolute affirmation, that is to say, the negation of the negation of the triad, reflective consideration, denial of reflective consideration, and forgetfulness of self. The dialectic of Zen meditation is the process of self-realization of spirit, forming a circular movement from ogiginating absolute to terminal absolute and, in self-developing rhythm, reaching a reconciliation on a higher level of the relative tension between reflective consideration and its negation. Dogen's teaching draws man beyond the particular categories of “the Absolute” and “Ignorance, ” insisting always on the possibility of the asceticism of dialectic negation. In Zen meditation the reconciliation of the two worlds-namely, that “everything is holy” and “identity of asceticical training and enlightenment” -cannot be considered conceptually as the object of reflective thinking. It presupposes the decisive work of faith, the so-called arousing of the heart for enlightenment and can be intuitively achieved only in the intense fervor of Zen meditation. What makes the dialectic found in the dialectic of Buddhism the authentic thing is this arousing of the heart for enlightenment, and its process of self-realization is the absolute term of forgetfulness of self. Precisely because it is absolute, if we wish to understand it as an educational principle we can grasp it only in its conditioned from. Herein we recognize the nature of its educational limits....
[期刊论文] 山田 三雄
1971年 24期
摘要:In E. Cassirer's Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (Philosophie der symbolischen Formen) meaning constitutes reality in coexistence with the sensible.
The symbolic act possesses three forms, i.e. expression, intuition and concept; the mythical as an act of expression comprehends reality as the world of quality. In contemporary intellectual life, the tendency of giving free rein to the mythical must be deplored However, the mythical as a means of expression for a child in its state of development opens up important research topics....
[期刊论文] 松丸 啓子
1993年 67期
摘要:The concepts of M. Buber's 'dialogue' and K. Jasper's 'existential communication' have some points in common. Especially both emphasize that man concerns himself with the other's self. Most of traditional existential education tended to ignore this point. Therefore, this education has fallen into some kind of individualism. In this paper, we discuss the problem of how to realize existential education drawing on an ontological comparison between 'dialogue' and 'existential communication'.
In conclusion, our views on the possibility of existential education are presented.
First of all, existential education can be developed by the realization of existential relations between man and man.
Secondly, in the traditional discussions on existential education in Japan, metaphysical aspects of existential thought were not considered sufficiently. We found that M. Buber's 'dialogue' and K. Jasper's 'existential communication' help us to work out a solution.
But, another difficulty arises here. As the relation of 'I-Thou' relates to the relation of and the 'existential communication' relates closely to other immanent communications, 'dialogue' and 'existential communication' are related only in a moment. Therefore, neither can cover the entire range of educational matters.
Besides, as both are basically realized between a person and another person, a problem concerning 'the persons who are not met' has been discussed constantly. Moreover, at the moment of the realization of both, the teacher and the student meet each other as 'personality'. Here, they are beyond the educational frame of 'teacher' and 'student'.
As mentioned above, 'dialogue' and 'existential communication' pose difficult problems in education. But, those difficult problems make us face a fundamental question what education should be....
[期刊论文] 山内 貞男
1991年 0期
摘要:(1) Das ,Leben Christi‘ stellt das Grundthema der „Deutschen Theologie“ dar. In unsrer ganzen Abhandlung—(l) und (2)—soll es nun geklärt werden, welchen Sinn die Hölle fürs oder im ,Leben Christi‘ hat.
Nach einer Erwähnung davon, wie Eckhart und Tauler in ihren Predigten von der Hölle handeln, erklären wir den Grund der Höllenauffassung bei der „Deutschen Theologie“, warum diese in des Menschen eigenem Willen den Kern oder das Wesen der Hölle findet.
Bei der Beziehung der Hölle mit dem ,Leben Christi‘ kann man drei Stufen unterscheiden. Auf der ersten Stufe findet sich die Hölle ganz als Gegenteil vom ,Leben Christi‘,und auf der zweiten läßt sie sich ins ,Leben Christi‘ hereinnehmen, was Gottes Lassen (nicht Verlassen) der Menschenseele in die Hölle hinunter besagt.
(2) Mit einem vergotteten bzw. göttlichen Menschen, der aus der Hölle oben in den Himmel eingenommen worden ist, entsteht die dritte Stufe. Die „Deutsche Theologie“ unterscheidet bei dem vergotteten Menschen drei Seinsweisen mit wechselseitiger Übergangsmöglichkeit: Im-Himmel-sein, In-der-Hölle-sein und In-der-Zeit (Welt)-sein. Diese könnten in der Reihenfolge als Heiliger-sein, Sünder-sein und Laie-sein bezeichnet werden.
Anschließend an kurze Zusammenfassung dieser drei Stufen kommt dann der Versuch, bei Luther, Weigel und Arndt einen Zusammenhang mit der Höllenauffassung der „Deutschen Theologie“ zu finden.
Zum Schluß ergibt es sich auch, daß ihre eigenartige Höllenauffassung für die „Deutsche Theologie“ charakteristisch ist....
摘要:Meine These läuft auf eine Korrektur zweier konträrer Voraussetzungen der Erziehungstheorie hinaus, auf die die “Antipädagogik” lediglich reagiert. Nur wenn Erziehung nicht als Entwicklung der Natur, aber auch nicht als Einwirkung der Vernunft begriffen wird, offnet sich das Problem neu und besteht eine Aussicht auf Bearbeitung jenseits der historischen Irrwege.
Im folgenden also läßt sich das Thema entfalten.
I. Historische Optionen. Die drei maßgebenden “Antipädagogen” des 19. Jahrhunderts sind Stirner, Tolstoi und Nietzsche. (1) Stirner argumentiert antiplatonisch mit einem Konzept der unbedingten Freiheit des Menschen. Der Einzige ist sein “Eigentum”. Sofern die Erziehung mit irgendeiner Idealität verbunden ist, wirkt sic repressiv und ist daher ebenso schddlich wie überflüßig. (2) Tolstoi argumentiert gegn die Erziehung gerade mit einem platonischen Konzept : Jedes Kind trage die Ideen des Guten, Wahren und Schonen in sich und entspreche vollkommen den “Forderungen unbedingter Harmonic”; Erziehung wäre die Storung der Harmknie. (3) Nietzsche argumentiert gegen eine platonische (christliche) Moral, so freilich, daß wiederum ein antipädagogischer Schluß nahegelegt wird. Was sich der Erziehung widersetzt, ist die ästhetische Natur des Menschen, die Triebwelt, der Egoismus. Aber das wird bekanntlich aristokratisch begründet.
II. Verstärker der Antipädagogik. Es gibt im wesentlichen drei Tendenzen, die antipädagogische Argumente im 20. Jahrhundert verstärkt haben. (1) Psychologische Theorien. Unter den neueren Ansätzen der analytischen Kinderpsychologie ist Wincottes Theorie der emotinalen Entwicklung von besonderer Bedeutung gewesen. Wichtiger für das Erziehungsproblem ist die Unterscheidung des “wahren” und des “falschen” Selbst. Das “falsche Selbst” ist eine Reaktion auf Erziehung, und zwar eine der Abwehr. (2) Ethnologische Befunde. Mead unterscheidet die kulturellen Überlieferungen in drei Stilen, deren dritter die antipädagogische Zukunft der Erziehung beschreiben soli. In präfigurativen Kulturen trete die Generationenfolge auseinander, weil jede Generation allen durch die eigenen Erfahrungen bestimmt werde. Das “Kommende” sei durch das Kind und nicht länger durch Eltern oder Großeltern repräsentiert, weil die Erfahrungen der Älteren für die Jüngeren, wertlos geworden seien. Ferner folmaliert Mead, “wenn alles an der Entwicklung eines Kindes die Zukunft erwiesen werden muß, hort die Erziehung auf.” (3) Historiographische Konstruktionen. Die These von Aries, daß es Kindheit in der frühen Neuzeit nicht gab und daß sie gleichsam eine Erfindung pädagogischer Moralisten gewesen sein, ist im Hinblick auf Verdichtung-und Rationalisierungsefekte durchaus zutreffend, wäirend die Vorgeschichte gleichsam in Rückpro-jektion wahrgenommen und zu einer antipädagogischen Idylle stilisiert wird. Aber für seine Idylle der vorpädagogischen Gemeinschaft fehlt Aries histirisch jeder Beweis; inzwischen sind Quellen genug vorhanden....
[期刊论文] 門脇 健
摘要:As the story of the Buddha’s “Great Renunciation” suggests, it is very difficult for urban people to face aging, sickness and death. Urban culture seeks to cover up and ignore these misfortunes and many modern people in the city live without religion. Yoshimoto Takaaki, who wrote The Last Shinran, was able to disengage himself from urban culture and face death as Shinran did. However he was unable to enter the gate of religion. For him religion is already established and negates his identity. Beyond religion, he longed for the foolishness of the Last Shinran. But to be foolish like Shinran, it is necessary to deconstruct the self. Shinran deconstructed not only the old religious systems but also experienced the deconstruction of his self. This deconstruction is conversion. Conversion does not mean to exchange one thought with a new one, but to be born as a new self through self-deconstruction. But one cannot deconstruct oneself. Only the Other Power can negate the self. Has not Yoshimoto experienced the deconstruction of his self when he disengaged himself from urban culture? Because he experienced the deconstruction of his self and became a fool, he could discover Shinran’s foolishness before the gate of the religion....
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