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[期刊论文] Daisuke Hirahara
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2018年 1期
摘要:Increase of irregular workers called working-poor is a problem. This unstable employment makes the poor more poverty. The possibility that a simple work is deprived by the development of artificial intelligence is increasing. From this background, restructuring of social structure and policies become important. In Japan, as the declining birthrate and aging population progresses, there is concern that more people need medical care and nursing care services, so increasing social security expenses is also a problem....
[期刊论文] Mehtap Isik
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2018年 1期
摘要:Gulf Cooperation Council countries have been offering opportunities to attract global investors for a while. Yet, the strong tension between the existing government structures and the democratic elements that are needed for investments to flourish creates a complicated economic environment. Besides, the external dynamics sourced from international relations in the region add a new dimension to the problem. For many economies of the same characteristics, governmental supports for entrepreneurial activities rise as a natural solution for many problems. Is it the case for the Gulf States, too? This study, first, draws a framework in order to explore the extent of the new entrepreneur-led growth policies in the region and relates the possible policies to the existing economic problems. Then, three markets, the Kuwaiti labor market which is a good representative of other Gulf States’ labor markets, renewable energy markets and biotechnology markets which have increasing roles in new industrial policies, are studied to examine the challenges and the opportunities created by these government policies. The study reveals numerous opportunities offered to entrepreneurs and investors, however further requirements to improve the conditions necessary for entrepreneur-led growth are advised as policy purposes....
[期刊论文] Peng Li Yiqing Lv Dan Yao
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2017年 12期
摘要:This paper takes the PRD (Pearl River Delta) urban agglomeration as the research object and improves the gravity models to estimate and analyze synergetic development potential of exhibition economy in eight major PRD cities. Firstly, it makes a factual analysis of the overall development trends and characteristics of exhibition economy in China, and introduces the development status of exhibition economy in the PRD Economic Circle. Secondly, it constructs indicator systems for the development evaluation of exhibition economy and evaluates comprehensive development capacity of exhibition economy in the eight PRD cities. Thirdly, gravity models are improved to calculate the synergetic development potential of exhibition economy in the eight PRD cities. Research Results: The PRD Economic Circle consists of three parts, namely, Guang-Fo-Zhao Economic Circle, Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou Economic Circle and Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Economic Circle. Wherein, Guang-Fo-Zhao Economic Circle is centered on Guangzhou while Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou Economic Circle and Zhuhai-Zhongshan-Jiangmen Economic Circle are centered on Shenzhen. Research Proposals: The local government should establish administrative departments for the synergetic development of exhibition economy in the PRD urban agglomeration, rationalize the allocation of exhibition economic resources, optimize synergetic development structures of exhibition economy, explore characteristic images of cities and integrate them into the PRD Economic Circle; promote synergetic development of exhibition economy in the PRD urban agglomeration, thereby enhancing domestic and international competitiveness of the exhibition industry and driving robust growth of regional economy. Innovations of the paper are described below: it studies synergetic development of exhibition economy in the PRD urban agglomeration for the first time, explores the integration of exhibition economy in urban agglomerations of different levels, seeks solutions for the common development of exhibition economy in urban agglomerations and makes strategic planning for the development of exhibition economy in the PRD urban agglomeration. Currently, there are few researches on the synergetic development of exhibition economy in urban agglomerations of China....
[期刊论文] Oumarou Zallé
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2017年 12期
摘要:The purpose of this article is to highlight and quantify the spatial effects of political risk on economic growth among African countries. We design a spatial model of growth derived from the Mankiw-Romer-Weil model by introducing spatial interactions. Spatial spillover effects occur because political risk incurred by a country influences not only the country’s economic growth, but also the economic growth of other geographically close countries through a spatial multiplier effect. The econometric estimates concern a sample of 34 African countries from 1985 to 2015. Results show that the economic performance of African countries is negatively interdependent, and the spatial interdependence passes through political risk. It is indicated that natural resources and religious tensions have direct negative effects on growth. On the other hand, democracy and governmental stability have positive direct effects on economic growth but impede the economic development of neighboring countries. However, external conflicts are not necessarily harmful to neighboring countries. These dynamics illustrate the complexity of conflicts and political instability in Africa....
摘要:Commodification is a widely used and inconsistently defined concept. Inconsistent definitions of commodification, this paper observes, exist because alternative outcomes and consequences of converting relational goods into commodities are confused with the definition of commodification-social exchanges that convert relational goods into commodities. Distinguishing between alternative outcomes and consequences of commodification and the definition of commodification allows us to rationalize inconsistent definitions of commodification. In rationalizing inconsistent definitions of commodification, it is important to distinguish between commodities (goods valued for their ability to satisfy physical needs) and relational goods (goods valued at least in part for their connections to people which enables them to satisfy socio-emotional needs). The process of commodification is described as relocating relational goods from the humanistic sphere and relocating them in the commodity sphere....
[期刊论文] Hong Gu
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2017年 8期
摘要:China’s foreign trade volume is growing due to the increasingly globalized economy and the improvement in China’s international status. With China’s accession to the WTO and the rapid expansion of foreign economic and trade and economic rise, technical barriers to trade are widely used as a measure. In recent years, many Chinese export enterprises have encountered some of the world’s major developed countries. The impact of TBT reaches the ultra-billion dollars each year. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact on technical trade barriers (TBT) on China’s export trade, from the perspective of government and enterprises to study countermeasures. Technical barrier to trade is a trade import control. It has a duality, broadness, compliance and hidden. China is affected by internal and external causes. External causes are the protection for national interests, trade barriers, and so on. Internal factors are China’s trade pattern, industrial pattern imbalance and export order disorder. For these reasons, the government should establish a good system mechanism and the enterprises should improve product quality....
摘要:The present study measured the effectiveness of Brazilian fiscal policy (the effects of fiscal shocks on output) through several specifications of SVAR models. The focus was on the impact of tax shocks on output, but spending shocks effects were also estimated. Two databases for fiscal variables were used: the official data from National Treasury and a set of alternative data by Gobetti and Orair [1]. The tax multiplier depends on the assumption about the sensitivity of government’s revenue to output: the greater the sensitivity, the greater is the tax multiplier. The preferred estimates of tax multipliers in this paper are higher than other estimates in the Brazilian literature. In most identifications both spending and tax (impact) multipliers are below unit....
摘要:Since their liberalization, the electricity markets are characterized by a rather high volatility, which includes price spikes as one of the stylized and specific characteristics of this market. In this paper, we investigate the factors and mechanisms determining these spikes. Based on the Italian electricity market data, we perform a specific analysis of the auctions mechanisms and of the hourly bid and offer of electricity characteristics, for determining how and why do price spikes occur....
[期刊论文] Saida Zaidi Sabrine Ferhi
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2019年 09期
摘要:The purpose of this study is to investigate the interrelationship between energy-CO2 emission-GDP for Sub-Saharan countries covering the period 2000-2012. To circumvent this issue we use dynamic simultaneous-equation. Our empirical findings show that there is a bidirectional causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. The results support also a bidirectional relationship between energy consumption and electricity consumption, but variables reflecting pollution affect negatively electricity consumption. As well the rise in economic growth increases the level of CO2 emissions and vice versa....
[期刊论文] Guoe Xie Shufen Zheng
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2019年 09期
摘要:Using the method of export complexity index, this paper calculates the export trade structure and technology content of mechanical and electrical products between China, Japan and South Korea from 2000 to 2016 based on the 6-digit code of UN COMTRADE database, and examines the differences between them in export technology complexity and export technology structure. The results show that although the export technology complexity of China’s mechanical and electrical products has been improved to some extent, it is still not high. Among the mechanical and electrical products exported by China, there are more products with low complexity and medium complexity, while Japan’s products with high complexity are obviously more than China’s, and Korea’s products with low complexity are less than China’s. Based on this, this paper puts forward some suggestions on upgrading the export technology structure of China’s mechanical and electrical products....
[期刊论文] Luhao Huang Mengjun Ge
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2019年 09期
摘要:Due to the factors of asymmetric information and inconsistent interests, venture capitalists and venture entrepreneurs have the problem of principal-agent relationship. This paper mainly explores the design arrangements of four transaction structures, namely, phased financing, choice of financial instruments, corporate governance structure and gambling agreement, and their local practices in China. The analysis results show that due to the imperfectness of our legal system, the immaturity of the capital market environment and other objective conditions, some good system designs, such as convertible equity and gambling agreements, are facing many difficulties in their implementation. Therefore, even though China’s current venture capital is developing rapidly, the interests of China’s venture investors have not been properly protected and venture entrepreneurs have not received sufficient incentives and supervision. If the current situation is not changed, it will be unfavorable to the development of China’s venture capital industry in the long term....
摘要:In this paper, we first show that if the firm’s production leads to environmental damage and the government does not implement any environmental policy by using a two-stage game model, the “excess-entry” theorem holds. We then show that entry can be socially insufficient in the presence of production externality and policy mix is needed for pollution control in oligopoly industry with endogenous market structure. Hence, the anti-competitive entry regulation policy suggested by the “excess-entry” theorem does not always hold....
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2019年 09期
摘要:Cross-country studies of corruption have reported a negative relationship between corruption and economic development. Yet the causal direction is unclear. We posit that the relationship between corruption and economic development is innately interdependent or bidirectional because they coevolve within a country. Moreover, corruption and economic development interact with governance, culture, and social development, forming an interdependent system of quintuple helix. We examine these factors with a sample of 157 countries, as well as a subsample of 46 African countries. The results indicate that as countries move away from a factor-driven economy towards an innovation-driven economy, they observe lower levels of perceived corruption. However, the relationship between actual incidence of corruption and economic development is highly sensitive to covariates in governance, culture, and social development, consistent with interdependence among these factors. The factor that consistently explains perceived and actual corruption is a country’s governance systems, measured by institutions or press freedom....
摘要:Accountability of the position holders is an instrument for ensuring quality governance within the bureaucratic structure throughout the world, and Nepal is not an exception. Time and again, the government of Nepal has practiced various plans, policies, and institutional mechanisms to make duty bearers accountable for their actions and performance. However, it is a general feeling that still these have not resulted as expected. Citizens often feel that bureaucrats are being irresponsive and unaccountable, and bureaucrats are openly criticized. In this background, we examine the determinants of accountability in Nepali Bureaucracy using the primary data collected from 213 bureaucrats form the central level organization, i.e., Ministry of Education employing widely accepted framework as proposed by Yamane [56]. The estimated results show that the bureaucrats seem to be accountable. Transparency, responsibility, and responsiveness also appear to be good; however, liability and controllability were not found to meet the expectations. This scenario reveals that there is a weak controllability mechanism. Similarly, there was a weak system for performance-based reward and punishment. It is interesting to note that accountability of bureaucrats differs by their demographic attributes....
[期刊论文] Yan Zhao Shen Guo Zhiqiang Ye
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2019年 09期
摘要:This paper compares CHEER approach in both short-run (since 1973) and long-run (since 1870) with the yen-dollar exchange rate. The most important result is that CHEER is valid only in the period when the international capital market is developed enough. Historical data will render the interest rate parity insignificant and thus CHEER will fail. Also, the paper demonstrates that when either PPP or UIP fails, modification of the cointegration variables improves the power of the CHEER test....
[期刊论文] Akubue Jideofor Anselm
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2019年 09期
摘要:The current Millennium Development Goals call for a re-thinking of city development cooperation as majorly urban. This article builds upon the lessons learnt from existing modern day megacities. It dwells upon the events that were triggered by urbanization leading to the modern day mega cities and their challenges in the process of evolving more sustainable structure in the 21st century. The ideas herein are important for young developing cities in Nigeria where urbanization is already ravaging the spaces that are left for development as well as generates ideas for existing megacities like Lagos which ranks in the first 25 largest cities in the world. Urban development has long suffered diminishing effects due to majorly unsustainable initiatives and paucity of innovative solutions in planning and development in Nigeria. Mega cities’ ecological footprint as well as their socio-economic and political impact often goes further than comparable medium states. Megacities, which function with the anchor country concept and understood as anchor cities in the context of urbanization, possess huge potential for sustainable regional development, which yet has to be realized and addressed by Nigeria’s development initiatives. This paper observes the trends and challenges in modern day Mature and Transitional mega city development, and highlights ideas which Nigerian cities can employ to successfully influence sustainable mega urban development....
摘要:In this paper, we present a model that enables us to calculate the optimal income tax rate, given a specific utility function from leisure and consumption of private and public goods. The main contribution of our paper is presenting a new approach for determining the optimal tax rate: instead of focusing on the social planner’s point of view, we focus on the private agent’s point of view. We assume a given labor supply function and calculate the loss of income which equals increased government supply following tax imposition. Taking into consideration the loss of utility following decreased private consumption as well as increased public utility following increased leisure and public consumption, we calculate the income tax rate that would maximize an agent’s benefit. We examined our model by gradually changing labor supply elasticity, wage per hour, and the parameter of marginal utility from public consumption. We find that as labor supply elasticity increases, the optimal tax rate should be lower. On the other hand, as wage per hour increases, the optimal tax rate should be higher. Finally, as the parameter increasing utility from public consumption is lower, the optimal tax is lower....
摘要:This work analyzes the possible links between CDS premiums and bond spreads, with reference to both Eurozone sovereign and corporate markets, within the period 2011-2018. The main goal of this work is to provide more up-to-date results about the theoretical equivalence between the CDS premium and the credit spread of the underlying bond, and about the price discovery process of the credit risk between the CDS market and the bond market. While, theoretically, the CDS-bond basis must tend to zero, the analysis on all the considered markets has shown that it results to be constantly away from parity and, more specifically, positive on average. The analysis of the price discovery process of the credit risk between the CDS market and the bond market, analyzed by means of the VAR and VECM models, confirms the leader role of bond spreads for almost all the analyzed entities. These evidence could be useful for arbitrageurs, who want to take advantage of potential market inefficiencies, and for regulators interested in guaranteeing the financial system stability through timely and correct inclusion of all available information in the security prices, avoiding any adverse selection issue....
摘要:The continuing ineffectiveness of the tax reforms in Greek economy raises concerns about the need for a meaningful restructuring of the structure of fiscal administration. Tax restructuring that enhances regional, local or European taxation by weakening government taxation can be a key factor in reforming the tax system. The degree of tax decentralization of the tax policy applied is likely to improve the fiscal order and management and, on the other hand, it can be strengthened tax revenues by enhancing tax compliance. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize that the decentralization of taxation to a more socially acceptable regional fiscal policy can lead to an acceptable tax reform in the case of the Greek economy. A reform of the revenue management at local, regional, central and European level with a more socio-centric fiscal expenditure mix is more desirable....
[期刊论文] Alexandros M. Goulielmos
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2019年 08期
摘要:We presented the two faces of Management: the linear and the nonlinear. The second we named it Management by Chaos Theory, and we used the limit cycle tool to determine the order of chaos, in which companies, most probably 61% of them will face the highest order of chaos. We showed also how the technique of full Descartes’ Diagrams, using changes in variables, may help managers. We presented diagrammatically how a manager can manage his/her company by visioning. We presented also a historical making-up of Linear Management since 1911 and contrasted it with nonlinear one, clarifying the terms of mission and vision. We grasped the opportunity to analyze the mission of a shipping company, and use its 12-year activity as a case study. This company found itself in high order chaos from 1996 to 2000. The paper showed how a manager could not get in a Chaos area and if in it, how to get out....
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