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摘要:

RAC1 is a small-molecule G protein that regulates multiple cell cycle, cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, and apoptosis. FADD-dependent TRAIL can promote tumor metastasis through RAC1 and PI3K, and down-regulating RAC1 expression can reduce FasL-induced apoptosis. In addition, RIP1 bound to GTP acts as an activating protein for RAC1 and is involved in cytoskeletal reorganization. TRAF6 promotes migration and metastasis by regulating the RAS pathway in tumors. Thus, it is necessary to understand the interaction between RAC1 and TRAF6 as well as FADD and RIP1. In this study, we cultured hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells in vitro, specifically blocked the necroptosis pathway with Nec-1, and silenced FADD, RIP1 and TRAF6 gene expression using RNAi technology. At the same time, the expression of RAC1 was evaluated separately using RT-PCR and Western blot. The hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells survival rate was highest when the concentration of Nec-1 was 60 μM and the concentration of Z-vad-fmk was 20 μM. And the apoptosis rate of the transfected RAC1 siRNA cells was 3.59% compared with transfected siRNA cells 10.01% which was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). RAC1 could promote the occurrence of apoptosis in SK-Hep1 cells. RAC1 expression was suppressed in both protein and gene level in SK-Hep1 cells when the TRAF6 gene was silenced, but there was no significant change in RAC1 gene and protein expression when FADD and RIP1 genes were silenced. TRAF6 affects RAC1 expression and apoptosis in SK-Hep1 cells, while the FADD and RIP1 genes do not affect the role of RAC1. The TRAF6 gene is an important target in liver cancer cells.

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摘要:Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic disorders, with its prevalence being increased in the world over the past several decades. Therapeutical interventions for obesity are thus urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated the effect of long-term treatment (0.51 and 5.1 g/kg/day, 5 days per week for a total of 40 doses) with an herbal formula MCC [which comprises the fruit of Momordica charantia (MC), the pericarpium of Citri reticulata and L-carnitine] in normal diet (ND) and high fat diet (HFD)-fed female ICR mice. Body weight change was monitored during the course of the experiment. Fat pad indices, plasma glucose and lipid contents, as well as metabolic enzyme activities and mitochondrial coupling efficiency in skeletal muscle were measured at 24 hours after the last dosing. Results showed that HFD increased the body weight, fat pad indices, plasma glucose and lipid contents as well as β-hydroxyacyl-Co A dehydrogenase (β-HAD) and carnitine palmitoyl CoA transferase (CPT) activities in skeletal muscle. However, the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was decreased in skeletal muscle. MCC treatment reduced the HFD-induced increases in body weight, fat pad indices and plasma lipid contents. MCC treatment only partially reversed the HFD-induced changes in β-HAD and CPT activities, but did not restore the HFD-induced decrease in PFK activity. MCC did not alter the plasma glucose level and mitochondrial coupling efficiency in skeletal muscle of ND and HFD-fed mice. Since MCC formula did not increase activities of energy metabolic enzymes or induce mitochondrial uncoupling, the weight loss effect of MCC is likely related to the reduction of intestinal lipid absorption in HFD-fed mice....
摘要:More than 1000 herbal products have been used by diverse cultures of the world to treat hyperglycemia and among them bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is one of the most popular herbal resource. The beneficial effects of bitter melon is not limited to hypoglycaemia only, but it also ameliorates diet induced obesity, insulin resistance and exhibit cardioprotective effects. The present study attempts to investigate the effect of bitter melon fruit juice on a newly investigated risk factor, sialic acid in type2 diabetics. A total of 40 type2 diabetic patients, divided into group A (n = 20) and group B (n = 20) were investigated during the present study. The patients of group A were following bitter melon fruit juice treatment along with diet control, whereas the patients of group B were on diet control only. Serum sialic acid (SSA) decreased in group A from 66.20 ± 2.30 mg/dl to 63.50 ± 2.10 mg/dl (<0.11) but, increased in group B from 66.50 ± 1.70 mg/dl to 68.20 ± 2.50 mg/dl (<0.12), compared to baseline. Post-treatment between group comparison revealed a significant difference (<0.05). The beneficial effects on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycohemoglobin (HbA1-c) were also greater in group A compared to group B as was the case with blood lipids, weight and blood pressure. The study provides another mechanism for the cardioprotective effect of bitter melon and further strengthens its value in the management of type2 diabetes....
摘要:

Objective: This paper mainly discusses and summarises the potential issues of pollution caused by the Mineral elements, Mercury, Lead and Arsenic, its possible impacts on the human beings and the suggested solutions. Methods: This paper is prepared by reviewing the latest academic literatures. Result: First, this article discusses two aspects including the effects of Mercury, Lead and Arsenic on the Chinese herbal medicine and the potential issues of causing the environmental pollution. And then further study its toxicity effects and the side impacts on the human bodies in order to realize the actual circumstances people are encountering nowadays. This paper will also the corresponding its treatment method of reviews. Hope this will provide a valuable reference. Conclusion: Theses issues caused by the Mineral elements are prominent nowadays, thus the ongoing researches on the impacts of pollution and the possible solutions are regarded as highly valued in order to conserve the natural environment and meanwhile safeguard the well beings of people and the future offspring.

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[期刊论文] Electra Peluffo
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2014年 01期
摘要:

In this paper, it is studied the reason why Zuyangming (stomach meridian) travels the body through yin territory in contrast with the other eleven main meridians governed by the quantitative-qualitative yinyang synchronicity of meridians and territories to discover. Zuyangming meets this principle only partially (in face and leg) and that’s why the reasons for this exception in the thoraco-abdominal trajectory are attempted to be deciphered here. Ancient traditional medical texts describe the internal and external routes of meridians and the relations between the spleen stomach pair, which Su Wen 8 transforms into spleenstomach, mentioning the membranous binding (connective tissue today) which unifies both viscera. In addition, the embryological studies of the human fetus provided information on yuansource of lifeand the development of tissues (fascia and membranes) during fetal organic evolution, allowing us to understand many of the classical ideas about life, health and disease. Reflections in this paper conclude that zuyangming internalizes its resplendent yang energy, and thus compensates for the predominant presence of yin energy (yin organs in yin territory), keeping the inter organic harmony of energy blows.


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摘要:

Objective: Mitochondrial impairment in the skeletal muscle contributes to useless of limbs in spleen qi deficiency; however the genesis of such impairment is not clear. Herein, PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1)-Parkin pathway and mitophagy were studied to explore the machinery of mitochondrial impairment. Methods: 16 male SD rats were randomly divided in the control group and spleen qi deficiency group (model group); transmission electron microscope was used to observe mitochondrial morphology; mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was assessed by testing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and levels of ATP and ROS; western blot was used to analyze expressions of PINK1, Parkin, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and p62. Results: Compared with those in the control group, mitochondria became small, less and scattered, MMP and the ATP level were reduced, the ROS level was elevated, PINK1 expression was decreased, p62 expression was increased, but Parkin and LC3-II expressions were not altered, in the model group. Conclusions: Suppression of mitophagy might be related to the mitochondrial damage in the skeletal muscle when spleen qi deficiency develops.

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摘要:“Meridian tropism” refers to the organ-specific biological action(s) produced by a Chinese herb following its oral administration, which is analogous to the concept of “bioavailability” in Western medicine. In this study, we compared the in vitro and ex vivo pharmacological actions of three herbs [namely, Dangshen (DS, Codonopsis Radix), Ranshen (RS, Ginseng Radix) and Xiyangshen (XYS, Panacis Qinquifolii Ra-dix)] to validate their meridian tropism. We compared the in vitro and ex vivo pharmacological actions [i.e. the ability to increase splenocyte proliferation and adenosine triphosphate-generation capacity (ATP-GC)] of the ethanolic extracts of DS, RS and XYS to validate their meridian tropism. Results showed that DS, RS and XYS (at 30 - 300 μg/mL) can both stimulate the proliferation of primary mouse splenocytes in vitro and increase adenosine triphosphate-generation capacity (ATP-GC) in cultured Caco 2 colon epithelial cells in vitro. Interestingly, oral administration of DS and RS (but not XYS, at 3 and 6 g/kg/day × 3 consecutive days) was found to stimulate the proliferation of splenocytes ex vivo at 24 h post-treatment in mice. Similarly, DS and RS (but not XYS) increased the ATP-GC of mitochondrial fractions isolated from a small segment of mouse intestine at 48 h post-treatment. This observation is consistent with the meridian tropism of the pharmacological action of “Shen”, i.e., the accessibility of DS and RS (but not XYS) to the “Spleen” meridian. The comparison between the results obtained from in vitro and in vivo/ex vivo bioassays may offer a potential method for assessing meridian tropism in Chinese herbs....
摘要:

Objective: China mainland and Taiwan are separated by the Taiwan Strait, but their land edges are close to each other, blood relationship is very compact, and the origin is profound, the communication of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) between China mainland especially Fujian and Taiwan district is more and more frequent. From the actuality and situation of traditional Chinese medicine and pharmacy (TCMP), the objective of this study was to briefly expound the points to which attention should be attached urgently in education, research and development of TCM between China mainland especially between Fujian and Taiwan, and be provide with several resolving threads and recommenddations to aim directly at the attention points, and wish it can offer some assistance to the development and generalization of the cross-Strait TCMP. Methods: The China Statistical Yearbook of Chinese Medicine (1987-2010), the Yearbook of Public Health of Taiwan (2009), the full-text data base of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1993-2009), provides information on research and education in TCMP acrossTaiwan Straitin the last 10 years. The methods of analysis and comparison are applied in this study to show the TCMP situation betweenTaiwanandChinamainland. Result: Due to the differences in history, district, policy and legislation, the TCMP’s industry and trade, education, research and exploitation, standard and so on, have lots of differences betweenTaiwanandChinamainland, and many barriers are produced in the communication and cooperation of cross-Strait TCM and pharmacy. Conclusion: China mainland especially Fujian and Taiwan have the fierce intention to carry out thorough investigation in many territories of TCMP. The prospects and development space of communication and cooperation of cross-Strait TCMP are quite broad.

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摘要:Backgroud: Ischemic stroke is one of the challenge strategies nowadays due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Yin deficiency and oxidative stress have been implicated in the mechanism of brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether tomato, a “Yang food” possessing antioxidant, may ameliorate brain damage in focal cerebral ischemia induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion. Methods: Male rats were orally given tomato pomace (contained total phenolic compound 413.07 ± 34.45 mg of gallic acid equivalent/mg) at doses of 2, 19 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. Then, they were determined the brain ischemic volume and neurological score. Moreover, the markers of oxidative stress including malondialdehyde level and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex were also determined. Result: The results showed that tomato pomace could mitigate brain damage and neurological impairment. The neuroprotective mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. Conclusion: Tomato may provide health benefit for those who are risk for stroke. However, further researches are required....
摘要:Chinese tonic herbs are generally classified into Yin and Yang categories based on their health-promoting action. Emerging evidence has suggested that in addition to up-regulating mitochondrial functional status, Yang tonic herbs also enhance cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant capacity, and may thus prevent age-related diseases and prolong the healthy part of lifespan (i.e. healthspan). The proposed biochemical mechanism underlying the antioxidant action of Yang tonic herbs involves a sustained and low level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, which is secondary to the increased activity of the electron transport chain, with the possible involvement of mitochondrial uncoupling. “Yang invigoration” improves antioxidant defense in the body in the long term and thereby offers a promising prospect for preventing or possibly delaying age-related diseases and the detrimental effects of aging....
摘要:

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Yiqi Fumai freeze-dry powder (YFP) on ischemic diastolic heart failure. Methods: 100 patients diagnosed with unstable angina accompanying ischemic diastolic heart failure (IDHF) were selected randomly. 52 patients with TCM syndrome of qi-yin deficiency were divided into Chinese and Western combination therapy group. 48 patients have no TCM syndrome of qi-yin deficiency, and were treated with standard western medicine. After treatment, Seattle Angina Questionnaire Evaluation, ECG, conventional and stress echocardiography (SE) index, NT-proBNP were compared between before and after treatment. Results: The differences of PL, TS, DP between before and after treatment by YFP were statistically significant (P < 0.05). SE parameters of LVEF, E/A were significantly increase; E/e' decreased. The differences were statistically significant. However, echocardiography parameters showed no significant differences after treatment. After the combination treatment, NT-proBNP level had negative correlation with LVEF, E/A (r = -0.432, -0.643, both P < 0.01). Conclusion: Yiqi Fumai freeze-dry powder is safe and effective to patients with ischemic diastolic heart failure. Stress echocardiography can improve the diagnostic of ischemic diastolic heart failure, and maybe an effectively predict treatment response.

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摘要:Air pollutants pose a major environmental threat to the respiratory system. Pathogen invasion and the exposure to particulate matters in atmospheric air, particularly, cigarette smoke (CS), have been found to be associated with acute and chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma. Therefore, the search for agents that can protect the respiratory system against potentially harmful substances is of interest in preventive health. Lily bulb Nectar (LBN), which contains Lily bulb, Pyrus pyrifolia N., Siraitia grosvenorii and Apricot kernel as its ingredients, is a health supplement intended to improve the wellness of the respiratory system in humans. Lily bulb, Pyrus pyrifolia N., Siraitia grosvenorii and Apricot kernel are commonly prescribed for the treatment of respiratory tract disorders such as bronchitis, pneumonia and cough in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine. Pharmacological studies have shown that these herbs can produce beneficial effects on the respiratory tract or even the lungs. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LBN on mouse respiratory tract function under normal and challenged conditions. LBN was first examined for its expectorant and anti-tussive activities in mice. The effect of LBN on long-term exposure to CS was also investigated. Our findings showed that long-term LBN treatment enhanced the expectorant activity and suppressed the SO2-induced coughing in mice. LBN treatment also suppressed the CS-induced inflammation in the respiratory tract, as assessed by differential cell count and cytokine production. In conclusion, long-term LBN consumption may produce beneficial effects on the respiratory tract function in humans, particularly in the face of challenge by irritants in the inhaling air....
[期刊论文] Lingli Zheng Deshi Dong
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2011年 01期
摘要:In this study, a simple, reliable and accurate method for the simultaneous separation and determination of naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, baicalin, wogonoside, baicalein, wogonin, emodin and chrysophanol in ‘Da-Chai-Hu-Tang’ was developed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent ZORBAX C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5.0 μm), and the mobile phase composed of methanol and water containing 1% (v/v) acetic acid was used to elute the targets in a gradient elution mode. The flow rate and detection wavelength were set at 0.8 ml/min and 280 nm, respectively. All calibration curves of the nine components expressed good linearities (r2≥0.9992) within the tested ranges. The RSD values demonstrated the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 2.89%, and the recoveries of the investigated compounds were between 96.22% and 105.28%. The proposed method is simple, precise, specific, sensitive, and successfully applied to determine the nine marker compounds in ‘Da-Chai-Hu-Tang’ for quality control....
摘要:This paper reports the beneficial effect of twice daily ingestion (a table spoonful) of dried Kigelia africana fruit powder in the management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in two patients. Both patients had the classical triad of Amenorrhoea, acne and hirsutism. The two were 25 years old and 22 years old spinsters respectively. The ultrasonography was suggestive only in the latter; unfortunately there were no facilities to do the confirmatory serum enzymes assay. The use of herbal preparation restored the menstrual flow in both of them as well as leading to significant reduction in the acne but there was no noticeable effect on the hirsutism. There was no observable side effect associated with the use of the powder. These preliminary data thus suggest that Kigelia africana fruit powder may be beneficial for cases of PCOS especially in the developing countries where the new generation oral contraceptives, presently being used for the condition, may not be readily available....
摘要:Backgroud: Ischemic stroke is one of the challenge strategies nowadays due to the limitation of therapeutic efficacy. Yin deficiency and oxidative stress have been implicated in the mechanism of brain damage induced by cerebral ischemia. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether tomato, a “Yang food” possessing antioxidant, may ameliorate brain damage in focal cerebral ischemia induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion. Methods: Male rats were orally given tomato pomace (contained total phenolic compound 413.07 ± 34.45 mg of gallic acid equivalent/mg) at doses of 2, 19 and 50 mg/kg at a period of 2 weeks before and 3 weeks after the occlusion of right middle cerebral artery. Then, they were determined the brain ischemic volume and neurological score. Moreover, the markers of oxidative stress including malondialdehyde level and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex were also determined. Result: The results showed that tomato pomace could mitigate brain damage and neurological impairment. The neuroprotective mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress. Conclusion: Tomato may provide health benefit for those who are risk for stroke. However, further researches are required....
摘要:Increasing epidemiological evidence supports the view, that quercetin has protective roles in a multitude of disease states in human who have a high intake of polyphenols. To investigate the ability of quercetin and its rutinoside, rutin, to modulate the relaxation of human airways smooth muscle and to determine the mechanism (s) of such relaxation, isolated human bronchus rings were suspended in individual organ baths, precontracted with acetylcholine or with histamine and the relaxing effects of quercetin and rutin were determined by measurement of isometric tension. Quercetin induced concentration-dependent relaxant responses on acetylcholine or histamine precontracted human bronchial rings and with almost equal effectiveness. In terms of potency (pD<sub>2</sub>) and efficacy (E<sub>max</sub>), quercetin is more potent than rutin on relaxant responses of human bronchus. K<sup>+</sup> and Ca<sup>2+</sup> concentration-dependent contraction curves were inhibited after incubation with increasing concentrations of quercetin. Quercetin potentiated in a concentration-dependent manner the relaxant effects of isoprenaline or sodium nitroprusside. Rutin had no effect on K<sup>+</sup>-induced contraction and on relaxant activity of isoprenaline or sodium nitroprusside. Our results suggest that the bronchodilator effects of quercetin are modulated by an increase in cyclic nucleotide levels as well as an alteration in availability of Ca<sup>2+</sup> to the contractile machinery....
摘要:

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides (COTG) on myocardial protection, by studying effects of COTG on cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation and calcium concentration in rats. Methods: The myocardial cells of born 1-3d SD rats were isolated by enzyme digestion, cultured for 3 days. Cells were divided into five groups: Control group, H/R group, Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides low-dose group (LDG), Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides middle-dose group (MDG) and Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides high-dose group (HDG). Three drug groups were pretreated with different doses of Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides before hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. The apoptotic rate was determined by flow cytometry assay, the intracellular free calcium concentration was examined by flow cytometry, and the ultrastructure of myocardial cells was observed under transmission electron microscope. Results: The results revealed that Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides pretreatment decreased apoptosis rate, but the effect of lower dosage is not significant. Furthermore, Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides can attenuate mitochondrial calcium overload, improve mitochondrial morphology and inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis caused by H/R. Conclusion: Cornus officinalis Total Glycosides pretreatment can inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and calcium overload during H/R injury. However, the underlying mechanisms require us to further study.

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摘要:
A male named Anwer Jamal, age 45 years, married, visited Clinic Rafaheaam Dawakhana Ajmali on March 29, 2013, with history of glomerulonephritis, inherited renal diseases, hypertension and previously hooked on voltaren 50 (Diclofenic Sodium, 50 mg) and was not on dialysis. Different diagnostic parameters showed the patient was suffering from acute renal failure according to the RIFLE criteria. AKI is life threatening when kidneys suddenly is unable to filter waste products from blood. The patient was treated and managed with herbal medicines according to Unani system of medicine. Reversal of the parameter such as serum creatinine from 7.90 mg/dl (6.58 fold high) to 0.81mg/dl within two weeks clearly shows the remarkable recovery in a short period of time. During this period the other related parameters e.g. blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum albumin, albuminuria, blood pressure were also normalized whereas clinical sign and symptom exhibited improvement.
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摘要:Objective: To evaluate the anti-stress activity of standardized extract of Fumaria indica (FI) through validated beha-vioral models of rodents followed by estimation of biochemical changes associated with chronic stress. Methods: Fifty percent ethanolic extract of FI used in this study was standardized on its contents of fumaric acid and its conjugates (0.45% and 0.35% respectively). Stressed Charles Foster rats received unpredictable foot shocks (2 mA, 1 hr, 14 days) through electric grid. FI was given orally as 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) suspension in 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. For comparison, Panax ginseng (PG) extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as standard adaptogen. Incidence of gastric ulceration, changes in weight of adrenal and spleen, behavioral depression, cognitive dysfunction test and suppression of sexual behavior in male rats were used as validated behavioral models. Plasma corticosterone, brain levels of lipid peroxides (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and expression of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 in circulating white blood cells (WBC) were quantified for ascertaining biochemical changes accompanying stress. Results: As compared to vehicle treated stressed rats, the FI and PG treated rats showed fewer incidence of gastric ulceration, reversal of changes in weight of adrenal gland and spleen, reversal of behavioral depression, better performance in passive and active avoidance tests for cognitive function and increased sexual activity. FI and PG significantly decreased chronic unpredictable stress induced elevation of corticosterone, and both extracts normalized also the abnormal oxidative status of the brain observed in stressed rats. FI treatment also suppressed the elevated level of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 in stressed animals. Conclusions: FI could be another adaptogenic herb and fumaric acid and its conjugates are possibly involved in observed bioactivity of its extract....
摘要:

Background: Holistic thinking, which is rooted in Eastern culture, is assumed to be the core of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Recently, such holistic thinking has been proposed to be applicable to Western medicine practices for alleviating serious side effects; however, the obscure and often ill-defined terms of TCM, such as qi, yin yang, and wuxing, pose considerable obstacles for further understanding TCM. In the present study, we explored whether and how TCM is actually related to the scientific construct of holistic thinking, to elucidate the particular cultural signature of TCM. Methods: A random sample of 101 college students majoring in TCM and 93 non-medical college students was recruited for the study. Two psychological scales—the Chinese Holistic Thinking Scale and the TCM Competence Scale were used respectively to measure the holistic thinking and participants’ ability to apply the TCM in practice. Results: We found that individuals who thought more holistically were better at applying TCM to modern medical problems. Interestingly, TCM was associated with holistic thinking in both TCM and non-medical students, suggesting that this association is intrinsic. Further exploration revealed that the association and variability facets of Eastern holistic thinking—which emphasize that the world is interconnected and ever-changing, respectively—significantly accounted for the individual differences in competence in utilizing TCM in practice. Conclusion: In short, our study provides the first empirical evidence linking TCM to the Eastern holistic thinking style, which not only deepens the understanding of TCM from a scientific perspective but also promotes dialogue between TCM and Western medicine for building safer and more effective health care systems.

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