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摘要:SnO nanoparticles were prepared by addition of HCl to tin oxide solution. The synthesis process is simplified for SnO nuclei. We herein report a better-defined and simple procedure for synthesis of SnO particles in a simple hydrothermal process....
摘要:Heat exchangers have its major application in automobile, air condition, refrigerator, power plants, and many others. Heat transfer characteristics and performance of Copper spiral heat exchanger are investigated and compared with pure water. Nanofluid can enhance thermos-physical properties. Experiment is carried out for water based SiO_2 Nanofluid with 15 nm average sized nanoparticle at varying air velocity and mass flow rate of fluid to investigate its effect on heat transfer coefficient. From the experimental data, a closed form solution for Nusselt number has been calculated using ∈-NTU method. A new correlation has been proposed as a function of Reynolds number and Prandtl number. The heat transfer rate, effectiveness, has been significantly higher compared to pure water and with increasing volume fraction of nanoparticles....
摘要:Characterization is absolutely necessary and is a must in order to understand and estimate different silver nanoparticle (nm) size in specific group wise manner which corresponds to group wise in number & sizes, and their importance and effect on biological tissue and organs with agglomeration for nano toxicological studies in environments, the acute toxicity of colloidal silver nano particles (AgNps) were studied in fresh dissected tissues of Swiss Albino mice and their fetuses. In this manuscript, an attempt is made to demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of silver nano particles with a wide range of sizes (from 2.75 nm up to 1908.2 nm in radius) by reducing silver nitrate powder with polyvinyl pyrollidone in aqueous solutions in the presence of a sodium borohydride stabilizer. The resulting particles were found spherical aggregates with a rough surface and poly dispersity index below 18.26% (>0.783 PDI). The particle optical, cumulative, diluents and electrical conductivity properties were examined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential but morphology was evaluated after examination by transmission electron microscopy & image-j. Silver nanoparticles were directly coated with polyvinyl pyrollidone with a sodium borohydride stabilizer. Optical properties on a single-particle level were studied by means of auto correlation function measurements. The effective poly dispersity index of the charged silver nanoparticles was low enough to form a colloidal crystal at low ionic strength. Colloidal form is found more toxic than suspended particles in 1.5 molar sodium chloride solution; this shows increase of silver nanoparticles size due to agglomeration, will reduce the toxicity but increase teratogenicity....
摘要:We describe the results of 532 nm pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of two samples of magnetite nanoparticles (SPIONs) nanoferrofluid synthesized at room (S1) and elevated temperatures (S2) and at three different laser energy levels and pulse frequency. The size of magnetite nanoparticles, size distribution, magnetic crystalline phase and magnetization were analyzed and measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The SPIONs showed a distribution between 4 - 22 nm with a peak about 12 nm and saturation magnetization of about 65 emu/g. The Saha-Boltzmann analysis of spectra for medium energy level (1050 mJ) yields plasma temperatures of (3881 ± 200) K and (26,047 ± 200) K for Fe I and OV as the lowest and highest temperatures respectively. A range of corresponding electron density (Ne~-) of (0.47 - 6.80) × 10~(20), (0.58 - 8.30) × 10~(20) and (0.69 - 9.96) × 10~(20) cm~(-3) were determined at 860, 1050 and 1260 mJ respectively using the estimated CCD pictures. The results confirmed a higher elements ratio for S1 than S2 and the signal intensity indicated a non-linear behaviour as a function of pulse frequency with the maximum ratio value at 3 Hz. At higher frequency of 6 Hz no such turning point was observed. The highest and lowest temperatures corresponded to Fe I and OV respectively. The LIBS technique can be utilized to study, characterize and determine the elements ratio required in most applications involving the synthesizing process....
摘要:Increasing light extraction efficiency is an important task when it comes to manufacturing a powerful white light emitting diode with high luminous flux per watt. In this paper the fabrication of a pyramid-shaped 3-dimensional phosphor coating is reported. It is represented by a phosphor cover, shaped into an array of pyramid like formations. It is proposed that such a structure can improve the light extraction efficiency and the color distribution characteristics of any phosphor-converted white LED. The luminous flux and luminous efficacy are being studied as a function of the forward current across the die. It was found out that with this kind of technique it was possible to achieve an 8% - 14% increase in the efficacy of the pc-LED. This increase of light output power is being attributed to the reduction of the phenomena of total internal reflection (TIR) inside the packaging module....
摘要:Increasing light extraction efficiency is an important task when it comes to manufacturing a powerful white light emitting diode with high luminous flux per watt. In this paper the fabrication of a pyramid-shaped 3-dimensional phosphor coating is reported. It is represented by a phosphor cover, shaped into an array of pyramid like formations. It is proposed that such a structure can improve the light extraction efficiency and the color distribution characteristics of any phosphor-converted white LED. The luminous flux and luminous efficacy are being studied as a function of the forward current across the die. It was found out that with this kind of technique it was possible to achieve an 8% - 14% increase in the efficacy of the pc-LED. This increase of light output power is being attributed to the reduction of the phenomena of total internal reflection (TIR) inside the packaging module....
摘要:Real-time atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging revealed for the first time, the detailed growth/dissolution mechanism of Lauryl glycol (LG) or 1, 2 dodecanediol molecules on HOPG at the nano-level after recrystallizing them from chloroform solution. At the early stage of recrystallization, parallelogram-like-structures having lengths of several microns and distinct widths (between 100 - 400 nm) were observed. Growth/dissolution behavior of these parallelogram-like-structures as a function of time was investigated. While dissolution occurred along all three dimensions, growth was found to be strictly two dimensional. Both the growth and dissolution process were found to be logarithmic in nature. The average growth rates along their length and width were found to be 11 nm/min and 1.5 nm/min respectively. Average dissolution rate in percentage on HOPG surface was found to be 0.078%/min. Based upon the recrystallization of LG molecules schematics are drawn for a better understanding of the recrystallization process....
摘要:Ion-plasma sputtering and codeposition of ultrafine Ta and Cd particles on a moving substrate were used to prepare the solid solutions, in particular, the alloys with up to 66.2 at.% Cd in the form of coatings. In vacuum heat treatment cadmium evaporates at 700°C from cadmium based solid solutions resulting in formation of a porous tantalum with a highly developed surface. The prepared tantalum-based materials assume the technological application of the investigation results....
摘要:Bi1-xBaxFeO3 (0 x 0.3) nanopowders were synthesized using sol-gel technique. The structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, SEM and VSM. As Ba2+ doping concentration was increased, the structure of the samples changed from rhombohedral to tetragonal or monoclinic. The structural change might be an important factor for achieving the ferroelectric properties in this material. The lattice parameters were observed to increase with increase in Ba2+ concentration. All the M-H loops showed the ferromagnetic behavior. Magnetization was observed to enhance with increase in Ba concentration. The enhancement in the magnetization due to Ba2+ doping may be due to the replacement of Bi3+ ions by Ba2+ which might have resulted in the suppression of spiral spin structure....
摘要:LiMn2O4 and LiCuxCryMn2-x-yO4 (x = 0.50; y = 0.05 - 0.50) powders have been synthesized via sol-gel method for the first time using Myristic acid as chelating agent. The synthesized samples have been taken to physical and electrochemical characterization such as thermo gravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical characterization viz., electrochemical galvanostatic cycling studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential capacity curves (dQ/dE). XRD patterns of LiMn2O4 and LiCuxCryMn2-x-yO4 confirm high degree of crystallinity with good phase purity. FESEM image of undoped pristine spinel lucidly depicts cauliflower morphology with good agglomerated particle size of 50 nm while 0.5-Cu doped samples depict the pebbles morphology. TEM images of the spinel LiMn2O4 and LiCu0.5Cr0.05Mn1.45O4 authenticate that all the synthesized particles via sol-gel method are nano-sized (100 nm) with spherical surface and cloudy particles morphology. The LiMn2O4 samples calcined at 850℃ deliver the high discharge capacity of 130 mA·h/g with cathodic efficiency of 88% corresponds to 94% columbic efficiency in the first cycle. Among all four compositions studied, LiCu0.5Cr0.05Mn1.45O4 delivers 124 mA·h/g during the first cycle and shows stable performance with a low capacity fade of 1.1 mA·h/g cycle over the investigated 10 cycles....
摘要:Nanotechnology has shown significant promise in development of drugs and drug delivery systems that can overcome all limitations and address urgent needs to improve efficacy of diagnosis and therapy of various diseases including cancer. The functionalization with neem compounds as synthesis and capping agent had shown very high anticancer activities against Gastric cancer cells in vitro. The biochemical factors like albumin, glucose, and DNA concentrations were modulated along with Protease inhibitor and Catalase activates, the various cancer specific proteins like p53, GRD 70 - 78 kDa and other proteins of sizes 35 - 40 kDa corresponding to H+K+ATPase protein etc. The apoptic activity and antiproliferative activity were demonstrated with Gastric cancer cells in vitro....
摘要:Currently-used mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses have a satisfactory short-term performance, but may exhibit several major drawbacks on the long-term. Mechanical prostheses, based on carbon, metallic and polymeric components, require permanent anticoagulation treatment, and their usage often leads to adverse reactions, e.g. thromboembolic complications and endocarditis. In recent years, there is a need for a heart valve prosthesis that can grow, repair and remodel. The concept of tissue engineering offers good prospects into the development of such a device. An ideal scaffold should mimic the structural and purposeful profile of materials found in the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture. The goal of this study was to develop cellulose acetate scaffolds (CA) for valve tissue regeneration. After their thorough physicochemical and biological characterization, a biofunctionalization process was made to increase the cell proliferation. Especially, the surface of scaffolds was amplified with functional molecules, such as RGD peptides (Arg-Gly-Asp) and YIGSRG laminins (Tyrosine-Isoleucine-Glycine-Serine-Arginine-Glycine) which immobilized through biotin-streptavidin bond, the strongest non-covalent bond in nature. Last step was to successfully coat an aortic metallic valve with CA biofunctionallized nanoscaffolds and cultivate cells in order to create an anatomical structure comparable to the native valve. Promising results have been obtained with CA-based nanoscaffolds. We found that cells grown successfully on the biofunctionalized valve surface thereby scaffolds that resemble the native tissues, elaborated with bioactive factors such as RGD peptides and laminins not only make the valve's surface biocompatible but also they could promote endothyliazation of cardiac valves causing an anti-coagulant effect...
摘要:In the present work, we numerically study the laminar natural convection of a nanofluid confined in a square cavity. The vertical walls are assumed to be insulated, non-conducting, and impermeable to mass transfer. The horizontal walls are differentially heated, and the low is maintained at hot condition (sinusoidal) when the high one is cold. The objective of this work is to develop a new height accurate method for solving heat transfer equations. The new method is a Fourth Order Compact (F.O.C). This work aims to show the interest of the method and understand the effect of the presence of nanofluids in closed square systems on the natural convection mechanism. The numerical simulations are performed for Prandtl number ( src="Edit_ea5c7880-98a0-4cfc-a9b7-a134a9a7e768.bmp" alt="" /> ), the Rayleigh numbers varying between? src="Edit_18d21566-4f00-4136-918e-581d05f60bfa.bmp" alt="" /> and for different volume fractions src="Edit_d79432ae-97b4-49c2-b990-238d367d7edd.bmp" alt="" /> varies between 0% and 10% for the nanofluid (water + Cu)....
摘要:Silver nanoparticles of various sizes were prepared at room temperature using silver nitrate as a precursor, various molar ratios of sodium citrate as a surfactant stabilizing material and sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The morphology, distribution and sphericity of the particles were assessed in images from a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The sizes of the particles were calculated as being 9, 11 and 14 nm. The effects of the particles' sizes on the plasmon bands were confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectra measurements. The prepared samples were applied in photo catalysis of 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP), and the rate constant was determined as 0.05 s-1, 0.0015 s-1 and 0.00021 s-1 for particles of 9 nm, 11 nm and 14 nm, respectively. Due to their high surface energy, the smaller particle sizes were more active in the photo catalytic application....
摘要:Adhesive layer is an essential part of tooth colored restorations which play an important role in decreasing the microleakage between the tooth and restoration material after polymerization shrinkage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of deferent adhesive system of bonding agent on microleakage of nanocomposite resin in class II cavities. Two different types of adhesive systems: universal adhesive (ExciTE) and a newly developed adhesive (Nano-Bond) and one type of light-cured resin restorative material (nanocomposite resin) were used in this study. These adhesives were applied to prepared tooth cavities by either manufactures' instructions or by an experimental method (single or double application). Nanocomposite resin was then placed and light-cured for 40 seconds. Teeth were subjected to 500 thermal cycles between 5°C and 55°C and were immersed in 3% methylene blue solution for 24 hours; microleakage was observed microscopically. The data were analyzed by a two-way ANOVA. For comparison between groups, Tukey's post-hoc test was used. Nanoparticles reinforced adhesive system shows low microleakage in compare with universal adhesive system, and application of two adhesive layers also can decrease the microleakage. The ability of stress absorption by adhesive layer after polymerization shrinkage of restoration material will reduce the microleakage....
摘要:In this work, different sizes of gold nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by using trisodium citrate as a surfactant stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the samples were synthesized in spherical shapes with three different particle sizes: 4 nm, 7 nm and 11 nm. Ultraviolet-visible spectra measurements were used to analyze the way that surface plasmon bands were affected by the different particles sizes. The effect of sphere size on photocatalytic reduction of 4-Nitrophenol was then studied and the rate constant of the reduction was calculated to be 0.014 s-1, 0.0091 s-1 and 0.003 s-1 for particles sizes of 4 nm, 7 nm and 11 nm, respectively. The results obtained indicated that small particles were more active in catalytic reduction due to their high surface energy....
摘要:Electro-spinning is a very modern process which can be used in various purposes. We did this experimental work at Swerea IVF in Sweden during M. Sc in Textile Technology programme at University of Bor?s. We should especially thank our supervisor—Anna Thorvaldsson and course teacher—Ioannis S. Chronakis. In this report, we have tried to explain the basic manufacturing techniques of the electrospun nanofiber by the electro-spinning, how one can characterize it by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and its various applications in the practical field, e.g wound healing, Tissue Engineering Scaffold. The experimental work helped us a lot to gather sufficient knowledge about the electro-spinning process which we wanted to share with all....
摘要:Nanoparticles of Fe3O4 and Fe are chemically synthesized by reduction of Fe(acac)3 using ascorbic acid in controlled condition. It was observed that addition of water during the chemical synthesis process yields Fe3O4 nanoparticles, whereas if the reaction is carried out in absence of water yields Fe nanoparticles—which get oxidized upon exposure to air atmosphere. Fe3O4 (15 ± 5 nm) and Fe/iron oxide nanoparticles (7 ± 1 nm) were successfully synthesized in the comparative study reported herewith. Mechanism for formation/synthesis of Fe3O4 and Fe/iron oxide nanoparticles is proposed herewith in which added water acts as an oxygen supplier. Physico-chemical characterization done by SEM, TEM, EDAX, and XPS supports the proposed mechanism....
摘要:Growing demand for high-performance materials is driving the development of composites with nano material reinforcement. The use of nano reinforcement can provide a distinct advantage due to high surface area of the material. There are still many challenges in achieving the full potential of nanocomposites. In this paper, we investigate the performance of epoxy nanocomposites reinforced with short polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) nanofibers. PMMA nanofibers were chopped and mixed with the epoxy resin and then the mixture was poured into a mould. Samples were cut to an appropriate size after cure and mechanical testing was carried out. Tensile and flexural strength and modulus were evaluated for samples with various fiber volume fractions to determine changes in mechanical performance. Also Scanning Electron Microscopy was utilized to investigate fracture surface and fiber-matrix interface. Results indicated that mechanical performance dropped as volume fraction of fibers increased, namely poor fiber-matrix adhesion and presence of porosity resulted in deterioration in strength and modulus. Further research is required to develop fiber coating system to enhance performance of the nanocomposite by improving fiber-matrix adhesion and fiber wet-out....
摘要:The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of different concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nps) on the properties of two types of heat polymerized acrylic resin. The tested parameters were flexural strength, impact strength, and microhardness. The two types of acrylic resin used in this study were conventional unmodified (Implacryl, Vertex) and high impact heat polymerized acrylic resin (Vertex-Dental, Netherlands). Both types of acrylic resin were modified by using 1% and 5% TiO2 Nps powder. Specimen's dimensions were prepared according to the American Dental Association Specification No. 12. Three types of specimens were prepared: 1) flexural strength specimens 50 mm × 10 (±0.2) mm × 3 (±0.2) mm, 2) impact strength test specimens 60 mm × 6.0 mm × 4.0 mm, 3) microhardnesss specimens 25 mm × 10 mm × 3 (±0.2) mm. For each test 6 groups were prepared (each group containing 5 samples). Thirty specimens were prepared in each of the three tests, amounting to a total number of 90 specimens. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength (FS), impact strength and microhardness of the above mentioned specimens were determined using universal testing machine, Izod pendulum impact testing machine and Vickers microhardness tester, respectively. ISO Specification No. 1567 was followed in microhardness test. The data was collected and statistically analyzed. Flexural strength considerably decreased by increasing TiO2 concentration in both types of acrylic resin. Impact strength of the conventional acrylic resin modified by 1% of additives significantly increased. The microhardness is significantly increased by addition of 5% of TiO2 Nps. The Incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles into acrylic resins can adversely affect its flexural strength. Meanwhile, the impact strength can be modified by small percentage of additives (abt. 1%). This effect is directly correlated with the concentration of nanoparticles. On the other hand, concentrations of TiO2 Nps (abt. 5%) positively affect the microhardness of both types of acrylic resin used in the present study....
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