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摘要:Mould is an important factor which affects building environment and indoor air quality. Firstly, a variety of damages of mould contamination to human and building are reviewed. Then, the crucial factors of mould growth are analyzed; temperature and humidity are key factors. After that, the indoor mould growth models were analyzed. Heat and moisture transfer in building envelope is a key factor which affects mould growth environment; wall is sensitive to reach the critical condition which leads to mould growth and reproduction, results in contamination....
摘要:Spatial and temporal variation in planktons and water quality parameters were investigated in order to determine the effects of seasonal water use on reservoir water quality and planktons’ diversity in Kulekhani Multipurpose Reservoir, Nepal. This study also focuses on interactions among various water quality parameters with planktons and how such interactions can affect the second major utility, the fish farming in the reservoir. The analyses of seasonal water samples collected from three different sampling locations in the reservoir showed that select water quality parameters varied significantly (P < 0.05) with sampling seasons (transparency: 30 - 250 cm, pH: 7 - 7.5, alkalinity: 30 - 120 mg/L, DO: 6 - 11.5 mg/L, CO2: 0.1 - 1.1 mg/L) and sampling locations (phosphate: 0.1 - 0.25 mg/L, nitrate 0.01 - 0.19 mg/L) in the reservoir. Three groups of zooplankton and four classes of phytoplankton, respectively with eleven and twelve genera, were identified and quantified in the reservoir. Among them, Cyclops, Asplanchana, and Keratella were most dominant zooplanktons while Synedra, Melosira and Peridinum were the most dominant phytoplankton in the reservoir water. The abundance of select zooplanktons (Cyclops, Keratella, Polyanthra), and phytoplankton (Navicula, Melosira, Amphora, Chroococcus, Staurastrum, Scendesmus) showed significant interaction between sampling sites and sampling seasons, while the other varied only with sampling seasons and/or sites. These results showed that seasonal water level fluctuations, along with the variation of water quality parameters, change the abundance and diversity of planktons’ in the reservoir. Such changes can negatively impact the fish in cage culture, affecting the livelihood of people extensively relying on these fish farming....
摘要: style="text-align:justify;"> Sand is a crucial resource for society’s development. Among the most exploited sand quarries in the world are the lagoon and wetland sand. Although mechanical sand dredging is the most spread technique, manual and traditional techniques are still widely used in West Africa. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to describe traditional sand dredging (TSD), highlighting the procedure used and the structural organization of this activity, and to evaluate the total economic value of TSD in order to help decision making about wetland management. Therefore, TSD occurring in the coastal lagoon complex of Grand Nokoué (CLCGN) in Benin was investigated. Field surveys indicate that TSD is mainly dominated by men, about 93% of the actors. It required intense physical efforts including diving to the bottom of the lake and removing manually the sand in backed toward the surface of the water. TSD actors are organized in local associations which deliver extraction license and discuss with both the others actors and the local government. The total economic value of the benefits of TSD to the population, estimated using direct market value and replacement cost, was estimated at 2.44 million USD per year for 127,818 m3 of sand extracted. It is clear that introduction of mechanical sand dredging will increase the amount the sand removed and subsequently will increase some benefits such as reduction of flooding amplitude and mitigation of the filling of the lakes. However, mechanical sand removal will also considerably reduce the profit the local population makes from sand commercialization which currently represents 80% the total economic value of TSD.
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摘要:While the practice of tattooing has existed for thousands of years, it has recently begun growing in popularity in the US. With the increasing prevalence of tattoos, the methods and inks involved in the tattooing process have also developed. Tattoos now use many brightly colored inks, often made using metal-based pigments. There is concern that chemicals may be present in tattoo inks in concentrations that may lead to human health concerns either during application or removal of tattoos. Since exposure to metals has been linked to tremors, liver damage, memory loss, cognitive loss, and even death, there is concern about the prevalence of metals in tattoo inks in general. To this end, a survey of 226 commercial tattoo inks was performed and each ink was analyzed for the presence of heavy metals using two different x-ray methods: Particle Induced X-Ray Emission and Scanning Electron Microscopy/ Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Fifteen metals were identified in various tattoo inks by these rapid x-ray methods, including chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, barium, and lead. Conclusions can be drawn about the prevalence of metals in some pigment colors and from some brands....
摘要:Adzope’s Municipal Artificial Lake which serves as a drinking water supply to the population is prone to pollution due to human activities and increasing urbanization. Thus, it is essential to protect this surface water supply for sustainable use. The objective of this study is to determine the protection zones around this water reservoir in order to preserve the stored water quality. To achieve this, a methodological approach based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) was adopted. This methodological approach first consisted to assess the water reservoir vulnerability to pollution according to certain hydrological parameters (slope, land use, soil type, runoff, and drainage network density) and then to determine the protection zones according to the different vulnerability classes. After the scoring of different parameters, a weight was assigned to each, from the multi-criteria method (AHP). The combination of the weighted parameters in the GIS enabled to establish the water reservoir vulnerability indexes map. The vulnerability map established subsequently presents five (5) vulnerability classes in the watershed: very low (12%) and low (23%) in the North and South of the study area, moderate (32%) disseminated throughout the study area, high (20%) and very high (13%) particularly in the West and North of the water reservoir and in the East of study area. This water reservoir vulnerability map is potentially influenced by the land use parameter according to the sensitivity analysis test. The different vulnerability classes then allowed the delimitation of three protection zones (Zone 1, Zone 2 and Zone 3) around the water reservoir. The immediate protection zone (Zone 1) has a width between 100 and 450 m around the water reservoir with a surface of 1.16 km2. The delimitation of this immediate protection zone takes into account the high and very high vulnerability classes near the water reservoir. The width of protection zone 2 varies from 350 m to 1 km around protection zone 1 with a surface of 5.38 km2. The protection zone 3 covers the rest of the high vulnerability areas contiguous to protection zone 2 with a total surface of 5.69 km2....
摘要:Water safety plan as conceived by WHO can lead to prevention of pollution in each component of water supply chain which leads to ensuring safe drinking water. Risk assessment is one of the key components during the development of water safety plan, achieved by identifying hazardous events and estimating their risk towards implementing control measures. This study reports the risk assessment from catchment to consumers in Maiduguri water treatment plant in Northeast Nigeria. Tools such as the field visits, key informant interviews, questionnaire and water quality monitoring were used to identify the hazards and estimate their risk using semi-quantitative matrix. With the existing control measures, the study showed a total of 33 hazardous events; 5 in catchment, 16 in treatment plant, 6 in distribution system and 6 at consumers’ points. The risk score indicated 6 are of medium risk and 9 of high risk. Catchment activities, upgrade of treatment facilities and lack of routine maintenance in the treatment plant, pipeline damages in distribution lines, and consumers’ lack of hygiene knowledge and awareness were found to be the major contributory factors which affect the desired quality. Therefore participation and commitment by all relevant stakeholders are fundamental requisite to manage the identified health risks....
摘要:In this study, the experiments on field were conducted to examine the change in the content of soil organic carbon (SOC), its C-13 stable isotope composition (δ 13C) and some main physical, chemical parameters (soil moisture, pH, soil density, content of humic, fulvic, total N, total P, total K) in alluvial soil of Dan Phuong region—Vietnam at a depth of 0 - 30 cm when we changed the regime from 2 maize -1 rice crop to 2 rice - 1 maize crop per 1 year. In addition to analyzing the main parameters in soil, C content and its δ 13C value in parts of rice and maize (root, stem and leaf) were also analyzed to assess the contribution of plant residues on soil organic carbon content after harvest. The experiment was carried out in 2016-2017 on the field with the traditional farming method of local farmers along with the tropical monsoon weather conditions of the North-Vietnam. The results showed that SOC had positive correlation with total N, total P parameters and negative correlation with δ 13C values of soil samples at two layers (0 - 15 cm and 15 - 30 cm). The average of total dry biomass (stem, stump + roots and leaf parts) per 1 rice and 1 maize crop was 10.64 Mg/ha and 9.09 Mg/ha, respectively. The average of δ 13C value of rice (C3 plant) was -29.78‰ and its value of maize (C4 plant) was -12.61‰. The new plant (rice) contributes to the total soil organic carbon content from 11.31% to 44.14% at the 0 - 15 cm layer and from 6.55% to 11.31% at the 15 - 30 cm layer in one-year experiment period....
摘要:Soil erosion is among the critical environmental constraint for crop production in southern Mali. Contour ridge tillage (CRT), a water conservation technique had been locally applied since 1990. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of CRT compared with farmer conventional agriculture practice (NoCRT) on runoff, soil loss, nutrient loss, moisture conservation and cereals yields under rainfed conditions in two Southern Mali sites, in 2016 and 2017 in farmer fields. Measurements were performed on erosion plots composed of CRT and NoCRT plots from which water samples were collected to determine sedimentation levels, concentration and nutrients losses using pairwise comparison. Average runoff coefficient in NoCRT plots was 35.62% compared to 19.25% for the CRT plots explaining a runoff reduction of 46%. Mean soil losses of 12,095 t·ha-1 and 4970 t·ha-1 were respectively measured in NoCRT and CRT plots. Losses in calcium, magnesium and potassium nutrients in the NoCRT plots were 80%, 66%, 75% higher compared to CRT ones, respectively. Sorghum grain yield was at least two folds higher in CRT plots compared to the NoCRT plots. Maize average grain yield was 87% higher in CRT plots than in the NoCRT. For sustained soil productivity, CRT is advocated as a better soil and water management technique than the NoCRT one....
摘要:Electronic cigarette (EC) is a device that imitates conventional cigarettes, which vaporizes a solution, with or without nicotine. This study evaluates the nicotine levels in EC refill solutions, its release in aerosols and comparison to the amount stated on the label. Seventy-two (72) different EC refill solutions were obtained from local shops in Selangor, Malaysia consisting of 40 nicotine-containing (3 - 12 mg) and 32 nicotine-free (0 mg) solutions. Aerosols were obtained by using an air tight syringe connected to an EC device to draw aerosol through an XAD-4 sorbent tube that trapped the nicotine. Nicotine in solution and aerosol samples are analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry equipment. Quantified nicotine in 40 nicotine-containing solutions ranged from 0.224 - 17.306 mg/mL. Nicotine is detected in 3 of the 32 nicotine-free solutions. Percentage of nicotine released into aerosols from refill solutions varied from 0.54% - 28.2%. Out of the 40 samples, thirty-two (32) had nicotine content that violated by more than ±10% from the value on the label. In comparing the labels, 19 samples have 0.3% - 77% higher nicotine level and 13 samples have 0.2% - 96.3% lower nicotine content. The inconsistency between the labelled and true levels of nicotine content indicates that commercial information may be misleading. The presence of nicotine in the nicotine-free refill solutions and higher nicotine content in aerosols may be addictive and may have negative health effects on users....
摘要:The present study is aimed to examine the adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) by using the novel cellulose acetate composite and to apply it for the removal of Cu(II) from real wastewater samples. In order to achieve this objective, ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine and te-traethylenepentanene were used for immobilization of grafted cellulose acetate-nanoscale manganese dioxide. Cellulose was extracted from mangrove species Avicennia marina and converted to cellulose acetate then it was formed composite with nano-manganese dioxide via precipitation of nano-manganese dioxide on it. The composite was grafted with acrylamide monomer before immobilization. The synthesized compounds were used for adsorption of Cu(II) and characterized by FT-IR, TGA and SEM. The adsorption characteristics of synthesized sorbents were optimized. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to establish sorption equilibria. The analytical applications of these modified materials were applied successfully for the removal of Cu(II)....
摘要:In 1972, the oil producing countries implemented an oil embargo on a number of states, including Sweden. During this period, oil was an important raw material for Sweden. The oil accounted for nearly 40% of Sweden’s total energy supply and was an extremely important source of heating for the Swedish building stock. Subsequently, restrictions from Swedish authorities have been introduced into how energy can be used. The purpose of these restrictions is to reduce energy consumption and a part of this is that new requirements have been introduced on how buildings should be designed. The changes have had negative consequences as people, who live in these types of buildings, claim that they suffer from health problems, which are referred to as “building related illness”. The purpose of this project is to examine how the structural changes regarding air exchange and windows carried out after the oil embargo in 1972, have affected the climate and environment in Swedish buildings. The aim is to investigate whether there are links between these changes and assertions about building-related illness. From an energy point of view, windows are a delicate building component and the project includes studying the effect of using an external roller shutter. Furthermore, the project aims to investigate how the environment and climate in Swedish buildings are experienced at the user level and how authorities assess the scope and effect of the measures they have implemented. The results show that unhealthily low levels of the relative humidity generally prevail in the Swedish housing stock and that the changes in the construction carried out after the oil embargo in 1972, regarding air exchange systems and window designs, reinforce the problem. With regard to various design alternatives, it is necessary in Sweden to consider the prevailing climate and environmental conditions and that the energy efficiency of the buildings is good....
摘要:This paper presents a comparatively experimental study of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from an internal combustion engine fed by gasoline available in the Saudi Arabian market rating octane number (RON 91 and RON 95) with admixtures of syngas with 0% E0, 5% E5 and 10% E10—by volume of pure ethanol—and HE5 and HE10 with water concentrations of 5%, 10%, 30% and 40%—by volume of hydrous ethanol—at stoichio-metric mixtures. An on-board plasma system used to produce syngas through the partial oxidation of gasoline with air in a plasma-assisted fuel reformer. The syngas injected in a gasoline engine with a fuel injection system modified for operation with addition of some amount of syngas. The experimental results demonstrated a significant total reduction in NOx emissions and slightly increased in fuel consumption when mixing gasoline (RON 91 and RON 95), ethanol (E5 and E10) and hydrous ethanol (HE5 and HE10) with syngas. For the use of hydrous ethanol (HE5 and HE10) along with the addition of syngas, for both RON 91 and RON 95, the lowest NOx emissions are found 72% with a water concentration of 40%....
摘要:Land degradation is one of the most ubiquitous environmental challenges affecting the semi-arid ecosystems of the world and the Sokoto-Rima basin is not immune to this. In this study, we evaluated vulnerability of the Sokoto-Rima basin to land degradation by combining remote sensing and geographic information system technologies. An appraisal model was developed for the identified nine variables, whose weights were ascertained by the analytical hierarchy process. Using this model, we examined the spatiotemporal distribution of vulnerability to land degradation stimulated by climate change from 2002 to 2015. Largely, the basin is extremely vulnerable to land degradation with roughly 88% of the land area in 2002, 2012 and 2015 while areas with low vulnerability were just 1.52%, 1.48% and 1.51% respectively. Geographically, there exists a north-south vulnerability index dichotomy as the index increases northwards. Also, integrated vulnerability index showed that the entire basin is getting exposed to the vagaries of climate change that stimulates land degradation. Large-scale resilience projects such as greening and integrated shelter-belts and woodlots can be implemented in the long run as existing ones are inadequate to address the observed degradation....
摘要:Sugarcane burning during harvest and non-harvest season emits various pollutants like volatile organic compounds (VOCs), alkanes, and PAHs (Polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in the surrounding environment. Among these pollutants, PAHs are of uttermost concern due to their high level of toxicity. Burning of sugarcane bagase in sugar mill results in the production of fly ash. Fly ash is produced as a result of sugarcane bagasse burning in sugar mills. In present study, fly ash that comes out from the sugar mill chimney was collected from Western Uttar Pradesh, India and used for further analysis. High temperature and incomplete combustion inside chimney lead to the formation of PAHs. Extraction of PAHs present in fly ash samples was done by ultrasonication method and was identified with GC-FID (gas chromatography-flame ionization detector). Results exhibit the presence of eight PAHs in fly ash samples where the Benzo(a)pyrene and Naphthalene were found to be in high concentration. Furthermore, we have evaluated toxic effects of fly ash and Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (Standard of BaP & Nap) through different methods i.e. MTT, ROS and comet assay. Significant reduction (p < 0.001) in cell viability was noted in cells treated with fly ash as compared to control. Fly ash samples were also found to induce significant oxidative stress in HeLa cells, which ultimately causes DNA damage. Therefore, it may be concluded that the fly ash samples are toxic to the environment due to the presence of PAHs. Hence, the present study plays an important role in determining the harmful effects of PAHs and their source of occurrence....
摘要:Soil degradation is a major problem in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso. To maintain or improve soil productivity levels and limit Water losses, especially with rainfall variability, adaptation strategies have been developed that focus on water and Soil Conservation techniques (WSC). Although their agronomic benefits have been proven, adoption rates for these techniques are generally low, particularly among cotton farmers in Bam province. The main objective of this study is to identify the socioeconomic and institutional determinants of the adoption of WSC among cotton farmers in Bam. The data used for our study were collected as part of the Semi-Arid Resilience Promotion Project (SARP) from cotton producers in the province. A probit model was used to analyze the factors that determine the adoption of WSC in Bam cotton producers. The results show that variables such as early warning, group membership, smartphone ownership, and cotton income positively influence the likelihood of producers adopting WSC techniques. On the other hand, technical assistance and access to the pesticide have a negative influence on the adoption of WSC by Bam cotton producers....
摘要:Coastal areas of the Gulf of Guinea experience accelerated degradation as a result of erosion and flooding associated with intensification of extreme marine-meteorological phenomena. The coastal erosion process, especially on the sandy or muddy littoral, constitutes one of the main factors of the degradation of the Gulf of the Guinean coast. These risks, which are still poorly studied, could increase over the coming decades because of climate change and the human activities that exacerbate them. Data related to ocean forcing (tide, wave, and sea level anomaly), to hydrologic parameter (rainfall) and to the state (geomorphology, coastal slope, and rate of coastal retreat) of the coast were analyzed by several statistical methods and a numerical vulnerability model to map the vulnerability of the different coastlines of this region. The results showed that the vulnerability of these coastal areas is influenced by geomorphology, tide, waves and rainfall intensity. 24.34% and 37% of the entire coast are of low and moderate vulnerability respectively. While 26.98% and 11.66% are of high and very high vulnerability respectively. This information could facilitate developing sustainable policies to effectively manage hazards in this coastal zone....
摘要:A systematic study has been carried out to assess the water quality in and around Lake Edward basin in D.R. Congo Side. Fifty four water samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, including: temperature, discharge, pH, electrical conductivity, transparency, dissolved oxygen, COD, BOD, Carbonate, Bicarbonate, alkalinity, total hardness, turbidity, calcium hardness, calcium, magnesium hardness, magnesium, total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, total phosphorus, soluble reactive phosphorus, chloride, sulphate and total suspended solids. For bacteriological parameters: fecal bacteria, enterococcus bacteria, vibrio and salmonella shigella bacteria were considered. For macroinvertebrates assemblages all taxa using standards methods for each parameter. A comparison of data from dry (June to August) and wet (September to May) season was done in and around Lake Eduard watershed. The analytical data of various physicochemical parameters indicates that water characteristics in the watershed were in the limit of WHO standards for drinking water and aquatic life. Bacteriological water quality of some ecosystems in the watershed revealed the infestation of water with bacteria which make the water unusable for drinking by the surrounding population near and within Lake Eduard watershed. Longtime period sampling in the watershed is needed to understand the variation and composition of water quality and aquatic macroinvertebrate environment of the watershed....
摘要:The increase in industrial activities and vehicular movement along the northern industrial area of Windhoek has vastly increased the amount of traffic noise and other noise pollution in the area. Noise pollution has an adverse health effect to human population, when exposed for a long period. Residence in proximate communities along the north industrial area and those working in the various industries located in the area may be affected, when the noise pollution level exceed the permissible standard for human exposure. A sound level meter was used to measure the amount of noise pollution at the streets of the northern industrial area. The measurements were done during the daytime, at a time interval of 2 hours, from 08:00 am - 06:00 pm. The amount of noise pollution obtained from the study ranges from (64 - 72) dB (A), with a maximum of 72 dB (A) in Bonsmara Street, (67.4 - 75.3) dB (A), with a maximum of 75.3 dB (A) in New Castle Street, (60.5 - 81.0) dB (A), with a maximum of 72.3 dB (A) in Braham Street. (62.5 - 72.3) dB (A), with a maximum of 82.3 dB (A) in Hosea Kutako Street, (66.0 - 82.3) dB (A), with a maximum of 76.8 dB (A) in Simmentaler Street and (65.1 - 76.8) dB (A), with a maximum of 76.8 dB (A) in Dortmund Street. The variation of noise level index L10, L50, L90 and Leq, Noise Climate (NC) and Traffic Noise index (TNI) were calculated. The maximum noise pollution values obtained from the study were higher than the WHO recommended limit of 70 dB (A)....
摘要:The developmental and reproductive effects of endocrine disruption on humans and wildlife rank among the most threatening of all environmental health concerns. Particularly vulnerable to chemical assaults are the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis of the endocrine system. While the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the HPG axis have been the subject of intense research efforts, with comprehensive elucidation, a lot remains to be clarified on the effects of EDCs on thyroid functions. For instance, there are no clear-cut biomarkers of exposure and effects of thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) in intact organisms. Consequently, a number of in vitro assays have been developed, and are particularly useful for the identification and mechanistic characterization of potential TDCs considering the increasing number of EDCs that are being released into the environment. However, with the in vitro assays, studies suggest that a plausible major mode of action of TDCs, thyroid hormone receptor (THR) agonist activity, is not environmentally relevant. Here, we reviewed in vitro detection of TDCs activities in wastewater and surface waters. Data strongly suggest that cell lines may be responsible for the less frequent detection of THR agonist activity in wastewater and surface water. It was concluded that the development of reporter gene assays with thyroid hormone function related cell lines, is required....
摘要:The main objective of this paper is to study the removal of Cadmium(II), Lead(II), Chromium(VI), and Mercury(II) ions by sorption onto different natural and synthetic nanoparticles. Special attention has been given to the application of fish bone in nanoform as a useful, inexpensive and eco-friendly alternative material. A comparison between natural hydroxyapatite (fish bone), synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP) and alginate-hydroxyapatite composite (Alg/Hap) to assess their removal efficiencies to remediate the selected heavy metals has been done. Surface characterization by using different techniques has also been performed to understand the influence of surface characteristics of the adsorbent materials in the removal process. Different parameters (pH, contact time, mass dose and metal ion concentration) have been examined to identify the optimum conditions for remediation of different metals from polluted water. The potential applications of the biosorbents for removal and sorption of these metal ions from seawater and wastewater samples were also investigated and evaluated....
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