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摘要:The aim of this work is to emphasize the importance of a differential diagnosis of von Brunn’s nests in cats from other urothelial neoplastic disorders, as transitional cell carcinoma, for a subsequent optimal care. Von Brunn’s nests and cysts are submucosal benign urothelial processes, related to irritative stimuli (calculi and urinary infections), characterized by an invagination with buds and clusters of normal urothelium in the lamina propria. They are common findings in the urinary bladder of human beings, but few cases have been described in dogs and cats. We report macroscopic, histopathological and, in one case, immunohistochemical features of these rare forms in the left ureters of two cats. Macroscopic evidence during surgery of ureteral nodules in two cats was accompanied by histopathological diagnosis and, in one case, by immunohistochemical assessment. Histopathology was coherent with a rare condition characterized by nests and islands of normal urothelium in the lamina propria and submucosa, with formation of cysts and moderate focal subacute inflammation. In one case epithelial cells of the nests showed well differentiated urothelial cells with an intense immunoreactivity to pan-cytokeratin (CK AE1/AE3), CK19 in the first outer layers, a slight immunoreactivity to CK20 and a low proliferative activity using MIB-1 (Ki67)....
摘要:A characteristic common to herpesviruses is the ability to establish a latent infection in the hosts, a transcriptionally active region has detected during latency as well as a set of RNA that are known as Latency Associated Transcripts (LATs), their functions have been clarified in recent work. The present work was carried using different bioinformatics method in order to determine if Herpesvirus Canine 1 (CHV-1) has a region associated with latency. Our result was the selection of nine sequences candidate of micro RNA (miRNA) (MIREval 2.0 software), and 26 miRNA (miRNAFold v.1.0 software), of them, were selected 14 with real precursors of miRNA, two were found between the RL2 and RS1 genes, one in the RL2 gene and 11 in the RS1 gene. The results showed that the similarities of these regions are very low among the herpesviruses analyzed, so it was not possible to deduce the presence of the LAT gene in canine herpesvirus type 1 with bioinformatics. On the other hand, the comparison showed that the miRNA predicted: chv1-mir-mirnafold-8 has similarity with the ebv-mir-BART7-3p of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), in this way, the microRNAs predicted by means of bioinformatic programs met the theoretical requirements of these molecules, however at not having a degree of preservation in other herpesviruses, the expression by CHV-1 in latency cannot be confirmed and it is necessary to identify through experimental tests....
摘要:ROSE is a method for fast sample evaluation that does not compromise sensitivity and specificity in the hospital environment when establishing the diagnosis and the therapeutic protocol. The technique is already well-established in human medicine as it operates within the standard operational procedure, reducing the rates of inconclusive results and cancelled cytopathology assays in the hospital environment. However, its application is scarce in Veterinary Medicine, including in hospitals where intensive care is available. This study aims at conducting a case-by-case assessment of inconclusive and cancelled examinations in the Cytopathology Outpatient Clinic at UNESP (HV), Botucatu, Brazil, from 2012 to 2016 and ascertains the causes. For this purpose, a retrospective study was conducted for 9587 examinations in canines, of which 4.1% and 10.44% were inconclusive and cancelled, respectively. These results are not in line with ROSE, which foresees a total rate of 5% for these occurrences. The reasons for these high rates in the outpatient clinic were the lack of a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) and the relative inexperience of the residents in a university hospital. Therefore, with the adoption of the ROSE protocol for veterinary cytopathological examinations, together with adequate training for the outpatient professionals responsible for the examinations, the goals set forth by the ROSE protocol would be met and the rates of inconclusive and cancelled examinations would decrease considerably. Lastly, this study hopes to contribute towards the diagnosis and therapeutic protocols of the main diseases affecting dogs....
摘要:Animal trypanosomosis continues to impede animal production in sub-Saharan Africa mostly in locations where tsetse flies are endemic. This has ended up devastating many livelihoods where majority of the people depend on livestock farming as source of food and income generation. The true picture on prevalence and identity of trypanosome species is scanty or unknown in most areas where tsetse flies are present. This study sought to investigate the prevalence of trypanosomes’ infection in cattle and sheep using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. The use of PCR for detection and identification of trypanosomes has increased sensitivity of diagnostic method compared to conventional microscopy. Ninety asymptomatic free range grazed animals including 72 cattle and 18 sheep randomly sampled from farmers in Kerio Valley of Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya were used in the present study. Blood samples (5 ml) obtained from each of the animals were used for trypanosomes’ detection by microscopy and PCR assay methods. Microscopy results showed that only 2 cattle (2.8%) were positive for trypanosomosis infection. The microscopy results for the sheep showed zero prevalence. On the other hand, PCR results reported 26 trypanosomosis positive cattle (36.1%) and 3 (16.7%) trypanosomosis positive sheep. The PCR method was further used for trypanosomes’ species identification and the results showed that the 26 infected cattle were positive for T. congolense (12) and T. brucei (14) while the three sheep were all positive for T. brucei. The findings of the present study show that microscopy underestimates trypanosomosis detection and therefore cannot be relied upon as a tool for diagnosis. Besides, the method is weak in reporting species differentiation in a case where the morphological differences have only minor details or where the species are very close morphologically. This study recommends routine use of molecular biology-based technique for trypanosomosis detection in the Kenyan Rift Valley lowland areas....
摘要:The aim of this work was to compare the use of local intrauterine moist heat infusion to intrauterine antibiotics infusion, for treatment of subclinical endometritis which affects reproduction and milk production. 42 repeat breeder cows were divided into 4 groups, group 1 was the untreated control (=10 cows). Group 2 (=10 cows) was treated by 50 ml of Oxytetracycline 5% intrauterine for three successive weeks. Group 3 (=10 cows) intrauterine infusion with 30 ml saline adding to them 10 ml Gentamycin 10% and 10 ml penicillin and streptomycin for three successive weeks. Group 4 (=12 cows) intrauterine infusion with 50 ml sterile boiling water (≈100°C) was applied directly to the uterus for only one time. Leukogram was done before and after treatment, it showed leukocytosis and neutrophilia in all the study groups. After treatment for 36 hours and one week, there were no significant changes in the leukogram results of groups 1, 2 and 3. While in Group 4 showed decreasing in numbers of leukocytes (11.92 ± 0.75) and neutrophils (0.87 ± 0.16) to its normal limits after 36 hours and one-week post-treatment. Our new method gave the highest cumulative pregnancy rate 83.3% while other groups using antibiotics or antibiotics with saline gave lower pregnancy rate 40% and 50% respectively (P > 0.001). We named this new treatment method “Samia-treat; SAT”. SAT is a whole new and effective treatment for cases of repeat breeder which are caused by SCE in dairy cows; it caused increase in reproductive performance and cumulative pregnancy rate without over use of antibiotics....
摘要:Neoplasms of the digestive system are uncommon in dogs, and may be of epithelial, neuroendocrine, hematopoietic and mesenchymal origin. The leiomyosarcoma is a tumor of mesenchymal origin of smooth, malignant, slow-growing muscles. Paraneoplastic syndromes can affect different systems, being the most commonly found: hypercalcemia, hypoglycemia, cachexia and anemia. There are rare cases of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract in dogs that result in hypoglycaemia with clinical signs. The objective of this study is to report a case of gastric leiomyosarcoma associated with clinical hypoglycemia. The patient had neurological signs such as ataxia and seizures associated with hypoglycemia, which did not recur after surgical excision of the tumor. The definitive diagnosis was based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the tumor....
摘要:Early pregnancy diagnosis is a very important routine management to identify non-pregnant cows in order to keep an optimum reproductive efficiency both for dairy and beef cows. Ultrasound equipment allows estimating the viability and size of the embryo during early gestation. With the aim of assessing age and viability of Bos indicus embryos between 24 and 35 days of gestation, 55 cows were divided into 4 clusters. These clusters were conformed according to the first day that an echogenic structure was seen inside the embryonic vesicle (Group 1: day 24, Group 2: day 26, Group 3: day 27 and Group 4: day 28). The age of the embryos was estimated from the date of AI. Three progressive serial measurements of their length were made within 2 to 5 days. With a model GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations), the effect of days was evaluated to compare the second measurement with the first one and the former with the third observation. No differences in the size of the embryos were observed between the first evaluation (24 days) and the second (28 days) (P = 0.387). Also, simple linear regression analysis found a positive linear association between the size of the embryo and gestation days (R2 = 0.593) with an average growth of 0.078 cm per day (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the variation between measurements at a given time does not allow estimating with precision the exact day of gestation. Nonetheless, serial measurements are useful to estimate the healthy growth of the embryo from day 26 of gestation....
摘要:The objective of this study was to evaluate the profile of the main serum biochemical variables in buffalo heifers receiving diets with different concentrations of concentrate. Twenty buffalo heifers of the Murrah breed, aged six to eight months, were randomly assigned to four groups, with five replicates each, to be adapted to levels of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of concentrate in the diet, composed of sugarcane (bulk) and concentrated feed based on wheat, corn, and soybean meal. The experimental diets were constituted in the proportion “bulk: concentrate”, based on dry matter, of “80:20” (Treatment 1), “60:40” (Treatment 2), “40:60” (Treatment 3), and “20:80” (Treatment 4). Biomarkers were evaluated for energy, protein, mineral, and endocrine profiles, as well as enzymatic activity. A positive linear effect was observed for Final Body Weight. In the energy profile, there was a positive linear effect for total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol and a quadratic effect for plasma glucose. In the protein profile, a quadratic effect was observed for the urea: creatinine ratio and a positive linear effect for total protein and albumin. For the enzymatic activity, only the variable gamma-glutamyltransferase presented a quadratic effect. In the mineral profile, a quadratic effect was observed for calcium levels and a positive linear effect for phosphorus levels and negative for chlorine levels. In the endocrine profile, no statistical differences were observed. Diet with until 80% of concentrate does not negatively influence biochemical parameters that represent the profile of energy, protein, mineral and thyroid hormones for growing buffalo heifers and favors the performance of the animals....
摘要:Ear cleaning is a therapeutic component in the management of otitis externa in dogs. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and safety of a new ear cleanser, Sonotix® against EpiOtic® Advanced for the management of canine otitis externa. Eighteen clients owned dogs with a diagnosis of erythemato-ceruminous or purulent otitis externa were prospectively included and randomized to two treatment group: EpiOtic® Advanced and Sonotix®. Cytology and video-otoscopic examination (erythema, amount of cerumen and thickness and surface of ear canal covered by cerumen) of all affected ears were done at D0, both before (T0) and 30 minutes (T0 + 30 min) after ear cleaning. Then an ear medication was applied (Aurizon®, Vetoquinol). Owners were instructed to clean affected ears daily and apply the ear medication 30 minutes later for 5 days (D1-D5). Dogs were seen again at D6 for cytology and video-otoscopic examination. At T0, no significant differences were found between both ear cleansers groups regarding macroscopic and microscopic scorings. At T0 + 30 min and D6 cytological and video-otoscopic scores were significantly decreased (Wilcoxon test; p < 0.01) compared to baseline in both groups. However, the cleaning activity of Sonotix® was statistically superior to Epiotic® as evidenced by the median global scores of video-otoscopic examination at T0 + 30 min (Mann Whitney Test, p < 0.01). Effective ear cleaning is an essential part of any treatment scheme because it favours the contact between the ointment and the lining ear epidermis and speeds resolution by the removal of cerumen, microbial organisms and cellular debris. In our study, the important reductions in yeast, cocci, and rod-shaped organism counts were demonstrated in smears at T0 + 30 min and D6 in both groups. Video-otoscopic examination performed 30 minutes after ear cleaning suggests that Sonotix® seems to be more effective in removing cerumen than EpiOtic® Advanced....
摘要:Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic debilitating disease of huge economic importance due to loss in production, morbidity and mortality, and has a potential zoonotic threat. TB is endemic in India and has a worldwide prevalence, therefore, needing early diagnostic technique for the eradication of TB globally. Currently, compared to the eradication programme of TB in Medical sector, Veterinary sector is lagging behind though TB is one of the major zoonotic diseases prevalent in dairy animals and wildlife in India. With the “End TB” strategy by WHO in human, parallel measures for early diagnosis and culling has to be followed in case of animals for an overall successful eradication programme. The objective of this study is diagnosis of TB in cattle and buffaloes by using the cell-mediated immune response tests, i.e. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Test (CITT) and Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) assay, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting esxB gene (CFP-10 protein) and to compare their diagnostic capabilities. This study was carried out in 202 dairy cattle and buffaloes from an organized dairy farm, where almost all of the animals appeared clinically healthy. We found that, the combined use of both CITT and IFN-γ assay lead to more accurate diagnosis of TB, although IFN-γ assay was more specific than CITT. However, esxB PCR showed almost similar sensitivity to IFN-γ assay and may be used as a fast alternative method for the diagnosis of bovine TB from blood samples....
摘要:The efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard® and NexGard Spectra®, Boehringer-Ingelheim), administered once orally at the minimum recommended dose, was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes hexagonus ticks. The study was a blinded, negative controlled clinical efficacy study using a randomized block design. Twenty-four Beagle dogs, 12 females and 12 males were enrolled. Dogs were randomly allocated either to the negative control group, or to one of the two treated groups. Infestations were performed with 50 adult I. hexagonus ticks on Days-2, 7 and 28. On Day 0, dogs in groups 2 and 3 were treated with NexGard® (afoxolaner) or NexGard Spectra® (afoxolaner + milbemycin oxime), respectively. Tick counts were conducted 48 hours after treatment (Day 2) and 48 hours after each subsequent infestation (Days 9 and 30). In both treated groups, afoxolaner was 100% effective against existing infestations (p < 0.0001). Regarding the re-infestations, the efficacy of afoxolaner was 100% on Day 9 for both products, 96.5% and 100% on Day 30 for NexGard® and NexGard Spectra® respectively. NexGard® and NexGard Spectra® chewable tablets administered once orally at the minimum recommended dose were highly effective against I. hexagonus infestations for the 4 weeks duration of the study....
摘要:This study was conducted with the aim to record pathological conditions of the female genital tract of Red Sokoto (RS) and West African Dwarf (WAD) does with the objective of comparing the prevalence of genital tract pathology between the two breeds. Of the 211 (RS) and 221 (WAD) genital tract collected and examined, 104 (49.3%) of RS and 97 (43.3%) of WAD showed different types of pathological conditions. Highest occurrence of pathological conditions found in RS was in the uterus (38.4%), followed by those in the ovary (30.8%), cervix (6.6%), salpinx (6.2%) and vagina (1.4%) while in WAD, pathological conditions were highest in the uterus (28.1%), and followed by ovary (26.8%), salpinx (5.0%), cervix (2.2%) and vagina (0.5%). In RS and WAD does, respectively, endometritis (11.9% and 7.1%) was the most common pathology followed by ovaro-bursal adhesion (10.4% and 5.4%), inactive ovaries (4.3% and 4.9%), cystic Graffian follicles (4.2% and 2.2%), paraovarian cyst (3.3% and 3.1%), uterine haemorrhage (3.8% and 2.7%), and ovarian hypoplasia (2.4% and 4.5%). Other pathological conditions found in RS and WAD does include cervical lesions: cervicitis (2.8% and 1.8%), haemorrhage (3.2% and 0.5%); uterine lesions: hydrometra (1.9% and 1.3%), pyometra (2.8% and 1.8%), mucometra (2.8% and 3.6%), metritis (2.4% and 1.3%), post parturient metritis (2.8% and 1.8%), caruncular atrophy (1.4% and 0.5%), endometrial hyperplasia (1.0% and 1.8%), melanosis (1.9% and 1.8%), post parturient emphysematous metritis (1.4% and 2.2%), perimetritis (1.4% and 2.2%), uterine congestion (1.9% and 2.2%), oedema (1.0% and 0.5%) and Cysticercus tenuicolis cyst (0.5% and 0.5%); esophageal lesions: salpingitis (1.9% and 3.1%), hydrosalpinx (1.0% and 0.5%), tubo-bursal cyst (3.3% and 0.9%), ovarian lesions: cystic corpora lutea (2.8% and 1.8%), oophoritis (0.5% and 1.8%), and Cysticercus tenuicolis cyst (1.0% and 0.9%). Hyperaemia (0.5%) and calcification of cervical caudal rugae (0.5%) occurred in RS only. Genital lesions were not statistically different (P > 0.05) between RS and WAD does. In the two breeds, the 13 - 24 months age group had high prevalence of genital lesions. The current study has shown that endometritis and ovaro-bursal adhesions are the common female genital tract pathological conditions in Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf does. The high prevalence of female genital tract abnormalities may suggest that genital diseases are of serious limitation to goat production in Makurdi....
摘要:Considering the widespread disease transmission among butchers/meat inspectors and a possible risk of exposure to diseases due to the attitude of some butchers and nature of meat inspector’s jobs. Ignorance and lack of awareness of such dangers has also been identified to be responsible for some of the problems encountered in most instances as well as the presence of some predisposing factors for diseases. In view of the above, this model is developed as a means of demonstrating the use of the abattoir and other registered related slaughter premises in the provision of the physical facility, where the primary role of extension personnel to develop the capacity and capability of target groups in the abattoir and livestock producing community, in order to enhance animal/zoonotic disease surveillance and control. The model if adopted and fully utilized will create awareness among target groups of dangers of disease transmission and ways of curtailing such problems, government through their agencies, professionals and private organizations should be involved in the implementation of this model in order to achieve the desired response....
摘要:Although Indirect Immuno-Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT), performed employing in house prepared antigen, is considered by several authors as the golden standard for the quantisation of anti-leishmania antibodies in dogs, there is a lack of papers reporting a description of the different patterns of fluorescence that can be observed. An incorrect identification of patterns of fluorescence may be an important source of bias in the interpretation of results. Previous papers report different criteria to define as “positive” a specific pattern of fluorescence, namely: membrane fluorescence, homogeneous fluorescence of the body, or homogeneous fluorescence of the body plus flagellum. In this paper, we report a detailed description of preparation of slides and of the patterns of fluorescence that can be obtained employing in house prepared antigen. At least six main patterns of fluorescence may be observed: 1): homogeneous cytoplasmatic green fluorescence; 2): membrane pattern, in which the fluorescence is mainly localized along the entire perimeter of the parasites; 3): coarse-speckled cytoplasmatic fluorescence; 4): flagellar pattern, in which the fluorescence is localized exclusively onto the flagellum; 5): punctiform pattern, in which the fluorescence is localized exclusively at the basis of the flagellum; 6): nuclear pattern, in which only the nucleus of the parasite shows a homogeneous green fluorescent. The significance of each pattern is discussed....
摘要:Lens fibre differentiation is a life-long process related with lens transparency, and is particularly intense during development, being related with an FGF-2 antero-posterior gradient at the equator level as the main growth factor involved which has been related with the basal membrane of the lens anlagen know style="font-family:;" "="">n style="font-family:;" "=""> as style="font-family:;" "="">“Lens capsule style="font-family:;" "="">” style="font-family:;" "="">. However the lens fibre differentiation induced by FGF2 depends, as in other biological systems, o style="font-family:;" "="">n style="font-family:;" "=""> the local bioavailability of FGF-2 regulated by their relationship with extracellular matrix molecules as Heparan Sulphate Proteoglycans. Here, we try to clarify how Perlecan (a heparan sulphate proteoglycan specific from basement membranes) is involved in lens fibre differentiation at earliest stages of eye development. Our results show that Perlecan, is a maj style="font-family:;" "="">o style="font-family:;" "="">r component in the lens capsule during the earliest stages of lens development in chick embryos being present during lens plate induction, lens vesicle stage and the onset of lens fibre differentiation. In order to demonstrate a direct involvement of HSPG-Perlecan in lens fibre differentiation, we generate depleted lenses by HSPG-Perlecan synthesis disruption and specific enzymatic digestion. The HSPG-Perlecan depleted lens show a significant delay or abolition in the lens fibre differentiation which remains in style="font-family:;" "="">an style="font-family:;" "=""> immature cells displaying DNA synthesis in the posterior epithelium and a de style="font-family:;" "="">crease in FGF style="font-family:;" "="">2 lens expression. These data support the hypothesis that lens capsule HSPG-Perlecan is a key molecule involved in lens fibre differentiation during development, probably by involvement in FGF-2 biodisponibility....
摘要:Trypanosomosis is major drawback to profitable livestock production in sub-Sahara African, including Nigeria. Knowledge of the cytokines production in the phase of natural infection may help to better diagnose, treat and prevent bovine trypanosomosis. The purpose of the this study was to determine the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10) and cardiac troponin–I (cTnI) in the sera of cattle naturally infected with T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax and correlate these levels with parasitaemia and PCV of the infected animals. Five milliliter of blood samples were collected via the jugular vein from 411 randomly selected cattle into EDTA and non-citrated bottle. PCV was determined manually using HCT. Trypansomes were detected and characterized by microscopy and PCR, respectively. Serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and cTnI were determined using commercial ELISA kit. Data were summarized using descriptive statistic and significance of differences determined by ANOVA. Of the 62 samples positive for trypanosomes by microscopy, 50 samples were confirmed to species level by PCR. The sera levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and cTnI of infected cattle were higher than non-infected cattle. The differences were not significant (p < 0.05) from the non-infected cattle except IL-10. There was no correlation between assayed parameters, the PCV and parasitemia. This is the first report that determines the sera levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and cTnI in cattle with natural trypanosomosis. Further investigation is required to understand the specific effect of trypanosomes on myocardiac integrity and interaction between the two cytokines in natural trypanosomosis in cattle. id="KSFIND_MASK" style="opacity:0.22;height:0px;width:0px;display:none;position:absolute !important;left:0px !important;top:0px !important;border:0px none !important;padding:0px !important;z-index:1000000 !important;background:#000000;">
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摘要:The aim of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) among domestic ruminants of Grenada. Sera samples from cattle (133), goat (314) and sheep (481) were tested using competitive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Of the total of 928 samples tested, the overall BTV seroprevalence was 78.4% (95% confidence interval (CI ± 2.65). The seropositivity of ovine, caprine and bovine was found to be 71.7% (95% CI, 67.67% to 75.73%), 80.2% (95% CI, 75.79% to 84.61%) and 98.5% (95% CI, 96.43% to 100.57%), respectively. There was statistical significance in the seroprevalence of BTV among bovine, caprine and ovine (p < 0.05). It is evident from this study that blue tongue virus is endemic in Grenada....
摘要:In this retrospective study, a total of 275 solid masses were examined for cytopathologic diagnosis. Twenty four percent (67/275) of these cytologic samples were followed by surgical biopsy and histopathologic diagnosis, allowing for comparisons. On average, the cutaneous and subcutaneous solid masses were recognized when the dogs were aged between 6 and 9 years old. The origins of the solid masses included connective tissue tumors 37.1% (23/62), epithelial tissue tumors 33.9% (21/62), round cell tumors 19.4% (12/62), masses of inflammatory lesions 4.8% (3/62) and lesions due to other causes 4.8% (3/62). The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of cytopathology in the diagnosis of solid masses were 93% (62/67) and 97% (62/64), respectively. Generally, neo-plasms were over diagnosed by cytopathology as was indicated by the positive predictive value. Both the sensitivity and the PPV of cytopathology comparative to histopathology in the diagnosis of inflammatory processes were 100% (3/3). The inflammatory lesions were eventually confirmed as necrotizing myositis, necro-suppurative cystitis and endocrine inflammatory dermatopathy based on histopathology. Less than 8% (5/67) of samples were incorrectly diagnosed by cytology. The study showed high accuracy between cytological and histopathological examination of solid masses in dogs, and thus a reliable diagnostic tool in patient care....
摘要:Samples of raw milk from bulk cooling tanks were collected in five municipalities of the Southwestern Brazilian Amazon to establish the prevalence of class="KSFIND_CLASS" id="0KSFindDIV">Staphylococcus aueus and Streptococcus class="KSFIND_CLASS_SELECT" id="0KSFindDIV">agalactiae, as well as to evaluate the milk composition and its correlation with the bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC). A total of 250 samples were collected to investigate the causal agents of bovine mastitis in whole milk, from 50 bulk milk tanks in each municipality. Under laboratory conditions, the samples were diluted to 1/10 and 1/100, and samples of 0.1 ml from each dilution were plated in triplicate on selective media for class="KSFIND_CLASS_SELECT" id="1KSFindDIV">Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. To evaluate the correlation between the major milk components (fat, protein and lactose) and the BTSCC, samples were collected for 18 months from 73 dairy herds. The presence of the above-mentioned contagious mastitis pathogens was detected in 97.2% (243/250) of refrigerated raw milk samples evaluated. Analysis of the major milk components and BTSCC demonstrated that during the study period, fat compo-nent showed the largest variance, followed by protein and lactose, which also showed significant variances. id="KSFIND_MASK" style="opacity:0.22;height:0px;width:0px;display:none;cursor:auto;position:absolute !important;left:0px !important;top:0px !important;border:0px none !important;padding:0px !important;z-index:1000000 !important;background:#000000;">
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摘要: style="text-align:justify;"> Canine herpesvirus (CHV-1) causes disease associated with high mortality in infect-ed puppies, which represents large financial losses for dog breeders. Since CHV-1 at the time of the study he had not been reported in Mexico, the main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against CHV-1 in canine kennels in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. A commercial enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) was used, and the results were compared to those of a viral neutralization test. The ELISA kit uses the complete viral particle as the antigen. The plaque reduction neutralization test was combined with the immunoperoxidase technique because of the low cytopathic effect of CHV-1. Neutralizing antibodies were also detected in 20 randomly selected samples. The prevalence of CHV-1 with ELISA was 87%. The concordance between ELISA and serum neutralization (SN) was 0.1129, the sensitivity of the ELISA against SN was 1.0 (100%), the positive predic-tive value was 0.39 (39%), and the negative predictive value was 1 (100%). These results show that ELISA is useful for monitoring the dog population for CHV-1; a positive test result requires confirmation with an SN test, and a negative ELISA result indicates a high probability of being SN-negative. The only variables that were sta-tistically associated with CHV-1 prevalence were breed and kennel. A statistically significant relationship between the degree of ELISA and SN titer was obtained, with a confidence level of 95%. None of the clinical presentation factors was statistically significant. These results suggest that most of the canine population studied in Mex-ico is in a herpesvirus latency state.
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