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摘要:The paper traces the changes in the conceptualization of body-mind relations in psychology in terms of five sequential phases. The first phase is characterized by the view that there is nothing but the body. The second phase is marked by the conception that the mind is the only relevant agent. The third phase is based on the view that both body and mind exist but are on parallel tracks. The main assumption in the fourth phase is that both body and mind exist and function in interaction. Finally, the major tenet of the fifth phase is that body and mind are identical. The role and status of cognition, emotion, and behavior in the five phases are discussed. The paper presents for each phase the main theoretical constructs and implications for empirical studies, as well as major research products and insights yielded in the frameworks defined in terms of each phase....
[期刊论文] Sonia Vieira
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2017年 3期
摘要:Guidelines for clinical research and ethics committees are significant contributions to decision made in science and law. But since research methods need to follow the changes and the development of science, guidelines for clinical research have to be continuously revised. Many innovations are perceived for their intended beneficiaries as benefits. Unfortunately, this is not always true. Therefore two issues should be mandatory in discussions of research ethics committees: 1) What constitutes a harmful intervention? 2) What procedures should be established for obtaining data and evaluating their relevance? These questions are too broad and there are no ethical solutions that can leap off a paper. But an example can be worked on. Dental caries is a public health challenge in any country and chewing gum may have an effect with respect to plaque reduction, at least in a short period of time. But sugar chewing gum cannot be used as a positive control in biomedical researches. However, trials referred herein allocated participants for a sugar chewing gum group. Therefore, the aim of this critical review is to emphasize that such a procedure is an example of a conscious disregard for the consideration which is due to trial participants. Were these desirable researches themselves or they had other purposes?...
[期刊论文] Kuangming Wu
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2017年 3期
摘要:Things exist logically as understandable through time; such logic is called “time logic” that includes both logically dead and alive. This essay features time logic on the move, personal concrete, coherent open, and inter-changing into music....
摘要: style="font-family:Verdana;">This paper maintains that oversimplification has been a common and recurring problem in philosophy that has not only been ignored, but has also gone largely unnoticed. The paper sets forth various examples of oversimplification which include the one sentence moral tests proposed by Kant and Mill, moral ideas such as psychological egoism and Nietzsche’s will to power which oversimplify the complexity and variety of moral motivations, the Naturalistic Fallacy whereby it is claimed that what is natural is thereby good, various monisms beginning with the pre-Socratics and including Hegel, and our modern-day preferred method of oversimplification by the use of analogical arguments. The paper argues that these oversimplifications have come at considerable expense as they have often kept us trapped in dead-end and counterproductive theories and perspectives which have taken us away from truth and understanding instead of toward them....
摘要:Text and Data Mining (hereinafter, TDM) issue for the purpose of scientific research or for any other purpose which is included in the provisions of the new EU Directive on Copyright in the Digital Single Market (hereinafter, DSM). TDM is a term that includes Web harvesting and Web Archiving activities. Web harvesting and archiving pertains to the processes of collecting from the web and archiving of works that reside on the Web. Web harvesting and archiving is one of the most attractive applications for libraries which plan ahead for their future operation. When works retrieved from the Web are turned into archived and documented material to be found in a library, the amount of works that can be found in said library can be far greater than the number of works harvested from the Web. This paper aims at presenting certain issues related to the existing legal framework as well as technical/librarianship issues that apply to TDM which includes Web harvesting and archiving activities. This paper elaborates upon the applicable new provisions of Directive 2019/ style="font-size:10pt;"> style="font-size:10pt;"> style="font-size:12px;">790/EU on Copyright in the DSM with the aim to shed light upon issues such as the notion of style="font-size:12px;">lawful access style="font-size:12px;">”, the beneficiary of the mandatory exception for TDM, the purpose-specific TDM described in art.3 of the new Directive on Copyright in the DSM, and the application of the style="font-size:12px;">three-step test style="font-size:12px;">” in TDM....
摘要:The integration of ethical analysis in Health Technology Assessment (HTA) has proven difficult to implement even though it is explicitly recognized as an important component of such assessments in HTA literature. When compared to the standardized scientific method for systematic reviews in HTA, the diversity of ethical analysis has been characterized as a fundamental barrier to the integration of ethics. The present paper aims to identify the theoretical and practical differences between the approaches underpinning ethical analysis in HTA and clarify the reasons for such diversity. Our systematic review of HTA literature pertaining to the barriers to the integration of ethics in HTA identified nine ethical approaches: Principlism, Casuistry, Coherence Analysis, Wide Reflective Equilibrium, Axiology, the Socratic approach, the Triangular model, Constructive Technology Assessment and Social Shaping of Technology. Citations pertaining to each approach were extracted and categorized according to three constitutive components of ethical argumentation established in a previous research evaluating nanotechnologies: i) the disciplinary foundation that grounds the validity of the ethical evaluation, ii) the characteristics of such evaluation, iii) the operational process involved in applying it to a particular case (i.e., its practical reasoning). This comparison shows that, style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;">1 style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;">) the difference between these approaches rests primarily on their disciplinary foundation (rooted in philosophy, philosophy/theology, or sociology), style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;">2 style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;">) their complexity can be observed in the distinct characteristics of ethical evaluation deriving from their differing disciplinary foundation, and style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;">3 style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;">) although four different types of operationalization procedure were identified, little information was available in regards to the practical reasoning associated with these approaches....
摘要:The purpose of this paper is to answer the question: why do we love? We think that we love because, as style="font-size:12px;">Dasein style="font-size:12px;">, we are constituted by ontologi style="font-size:12px;">cal-existential modes, which structure us as disclosedness ( style="font-size:12px;">Erschlossenheit style="font-size:12px;">) to being, to others, and to the world. Our aim is to indicate the Heideggerian concepts of existential analytic which, for us, are fundamental to grounding love as style="font-size:12px;">Dasein style="font-size:12px;">’s way of being, i.e., as an ontological mode of style="font-size:12px;">Dasein style="font-size:12px;"> as existence and being-in-the-world. Our hypothesis is that love is a modification of style="font-size:12px;">the existential of disposedness ( style="font-size:12px;">Befindlichkeit style="font-size:12px;">), or an attunement ( style="font-size:12px;">Stim style="font-size:12px;">mung style="font-size:12px;">); i.e., a way of style="font-size:12px;">Dasein style="font-size:12px;"> to be attuned to somebody or to something in the world. In the first part of this paper, we will show why we can accept love as an existential mode; in the second part, we will discuss how we can say that love comes from the existential mode of being-in, of being-with and of the character of for-the-sake-of ( style="font-size:12px;">Umwillen style="font-size:12px;">)....
[期刊论文] Yossra M. Hamouda
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2019年 03期
摘要:Aristophanes describes The Clouds as “the wisest” of his comedies. The choice of wisdom as an attribute of comedy seems strange because the common perception of comedy understands it to be concerned with the absurd and the ridiculous. Wisdom is associated more with philosophy. This paper argues that comedy is an arena for philosophical ideas in society. This paper traces the ancient Greek philosophical fight of Aristophanes and Socrates and its manifestation in the arena of comedy within the two comedies The Clouds and The Cynics’ way of life. In this paper, there are also examples from the Egyptian comedian theatre like href="file:///C:/Users/test/Desktop/OJPP9.3-%E7%BD%91%E6%8C%82%EF%BC%883&4%EF%BC%89/4-1651025.docx#R17">The Married style="font-family:" color:#943634;"="">, Imprison Your Daughters style="font-family:" color:#943634;"=""> and href="file:///C:/Users/test/Desktop/OJPP9.3-%E7%BD%91%E6%8C%82%EF%BC%883&4%EF%BC%89/4-1651025.docx#R10">It Is Truly a Very Respectful Family style="font-family:;" "=""> and the Egyptian comedian media like Al Hudood mock news website. The analysis of these examples supports the claim that comedy is the arena of philosophical thought in different societies and times (not only in ancient Greece). style="font-family:;" "=""> The larger aim of this paper is to examine the philosophical potential of comedy and its effect within the realm of ideas in society....
摘要:The study and understanding of peoples whose worldviews include metaphysical phenomena and explanations are undermined by the strict adherence of many social scientists to the Western scientific worldview which acknowledges only physical phenomena and explanations. The effect of employing Western science in studying the material and practiced cultures of these peoples is to reduce them to constituent ontological components, strip away and discard their metaphysical aspects, and then take what can be readily extracted while leaving what is not understood and therefore not valued. This disrespects the knowledge and alternative worldviews of the very peoples that social scientists seek to more fully understand. One solution is not only to acknowledge the existence of and study alternative worldviews, but also to include and even operationally adopt them when appropriate or necessary to more fully appreciate the metaphysical perspectives of other cultures. In anthropology, for example, this approach could be accomplished by extending the rationale for and methodology of participant observation to include worldview pluralism, and employing the most appropriate worldview for a subject or aspect of a subject under study. In archaeology, this approach is consistent with the goals of the growing Indigenous archaeology movement. Specifically, if the subject has a metaphysical aspect, then a non-Western scientific worldview should be employed in studying that aspect rather than simply dismissing it as unimportant or even non-existent. This paper summarizes the philosophical framework underlying Western science and the evolution and current state of the Western scientific worldview in the social sciences, compares and contrasts Western science with Indigenous peoples’ way of knowing, and presents an example of how the limits of the Western scientific worldview can negatively impact the study of metaphysically inclusive peoples....
摘要:The mind-body problem is far to be an old issue because it keeps rising new understanding and perception without ceasing. In the contemporary philosophy of mind, the essence of the question should not be any more whether there is a distinction between mind and body. Rather philosophers should be more focused on the interaction between mind and body. The new interest is how does it happen? This article argues the eminence of the mind over the body. Mind-body interaction is not equal. It is rather the relation of dominion in which the mind masters the body. When the contrary happens, we call that misleading. In that case style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;">, style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> style="font-size:12px;"> the man becomes a slave of passion going here and there without focus. Whenever the mind remains in control, man reaches certainly to the goal....
摘要:The purpose of the article is to show the key role of the deterministic mechanism of irreversibility (DMI) in the understanding of the picture of the world and in its construction. For this, a brief analysis of the historical development of the picture of the world and the tasks of its further development, connected with the problems of describing the processes of evolution in the framework of the laws of fundamental physics, has been carried out. It is shown how DMI removes these problems. The role of DMI in the statement of the principle of causality in physics is studied. It is shown how DMI contributes to the realization of the ideas of universal evolutionism. It also shows how the conclusion that the open non-equilibrium dynamic system should be an element of matter and why matter should be a hierarchy of such systems follows from the condition of DMI existence. Using the example of the relationship between the laws of the evolution of systems and the laws of the dynamics of their elements, it is demonstrated how the law of transition of quantity to quality is implemented in physics and how one can build a picture of the world from simplicity to complexity. It is shown how with the help of numerical methods possible to substantiate that the laws of thermodynamics, statistical physics follow from the fundamental laws of nature....
摘要:Humanity and its gods evolved collinearly to the cultures, capabilities, politics, climates, and conditions that influenced it. Causes and effects always precede one another, history tells us how things turned out and gives us an opportunity to reflect on what might happen next. Where religious history is concerned, this is apparently not the case. Humanity has been manipulated, fooled, and denied the chance to know what really happened to it during its long struggle with understanding God’s Will and His place in our lives. Given the chance to know the truth, how eagerly would we embrace it? Fortunately, the news is good. The Kingdom of Israel, led to the heights by Solomon, fell to a desperate and brutal culture, the Assyrians. Their God, Ammon, later called Yahweh, was forced upon them as was His fickle, often violent temperament. This led to almost a thousand years of stark changes in Hebrew religious practices which resulted in the myths and legends of the Deuteronomy, what modern Jewry calls the Torah. The ideas, poems, and scriptures of Solomon, a devotee of the Evening Star Goddess Ishtar, most of which are focused on ways to revel in this lifetime offer a sharp contrast to the disaster-prone way of life of the Jews in the Torah, and the harsh rules-based way of life Yahweh expected of them in exchange for His Refuge. So said a man named Moses who left not one word of fact or truth behind him. Still he had advocates, as did Saul of Tarsus, the man who created Christianity, at least until his colleague, St. Mark-Peter gave us Christ’s Commandments as a Pole Star to guide us out of the madness of all the false prophets of the past. St. Matthew said it well about St. Mark’s Vision of Christ: “Upon these Words, all other words hinge.” This Essay, the Last Word frees us from the lies we have been told about our religious past, gives us the Truth and as with all truths, an amazing opportunity to find our way: A planet where neighbors love one another and give Thanks to God for the chance....
[期刊论文] Zamzuri Idris
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2019年 02期
摘要:The aim of this paper is to introduce the new concept of an infinite-light and infinite-frequency. Research methodology includes literature review, new hypotheses and scientific explanations to support it are stated and clarified, and finally, suggestions are proposed on how to study it. In brief, this paper discusses a widely accepted big bang theory on creation of our universe which mentions formation of glowing or light before particle-formation phase, and concept of duality for an atom and light in relation to an infinite-light. These two notions clearly brought out light as a fundamental subject to discuss. In this manuscript, I hypothesize an existence of an infinite-light which has several peculiar features: 1) infinite-energy, 2) infinite frequency (waveless energy), 3) infinite time (timeless), and 4) infinite-space (infinite-universe). In connection with these features, an infinite-light can be theorized to exist either immediately after the big bang or prior to big bang. Interestingly, its existence can explain creation of the universe in further details. It might be able to unravel what has already existed before the big bang, what drives the isotropic and homogenous universe expansion, why there is cosmological constant and finally it may clarify matters related to consciousness, invisibility, black hole and dark energy. Nonetheless, one must bear in mind that most written in this manuscript are hypothetical and remain to be proven....
[期刊论文] Amos Avny
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2019年 02期
摘要:The author examines how does Democracy, the leading form of government in the world, fit itself to the tremendous changes occurred in the world toward the 21st Century. Technology causes many changes that frequently occur before people and their organizations are able and competent to digest them. The author suggests some techniques and models for assisting nations to carry out the initiative of revising and enhancing their running systems. The article uses for the analysis of a two-aspect technique, constructed of Philosophical and Psychological methods for promoting understanding. Thus, the Philosophical aspect represents the Brain—the Rational way of thinking while the Psychological approach represents the inner-self feelings—the Emotional tactic toward actual occurrences. By using these two complimentary approaches, the picture accepted and the knowledge accumulated are much more completed and relevant....
摘要:The question of what responsibility humans have toward feral cats, if any, is a hotly contested one. Cats can be categorized in a number of ways: domesticated, stray, feral, and wild. However, of all these categories, feral cats are the most marginalized. Thus, they can pose a predicament for humans in terms of how or how not to care for them. Possible responses to this predicament range from leaving them alone; feeding them, but not neutering/spaying them; adopting a practice referred to as “trap, neuter, and release” (TNR), in which humans take responsibility for feeding cats, curbing their populations, and possibly monitoring their medical conditions; and even euthanizing them. This paper will provide an introduction to the issue of animal ethics in general and feral cats in particular; identify an ethical framework with which to address the issue of feral cats; explore the history of cat domestication; utilize a framework with which to examine the relationship of all cats to their environments; consider options for how to deal with feral cats in particular (TNR); explore and analyze data on TNR from the city of Philadelphia; and offer concrete solutions to the issue of the liminal feral cat....
摘要:This paper will use the concept of hyperreality to compare the so-called ideal state described by ancient Chinese philosopher Laozi with the world of The Truman Show. The concept of hyperreality is defined by Jean Baudrillard as the generation by models of a real without origin or reality. A hyperreal world is a simulation, or kind of a copy without its original. It is generally accepted, and confirmed by Baudrillard himself, that the world of The Truman Show is hyperreal. In order to compare Laozi’s ideal state with the world of the film, this paper will give a hyperrealist interpretation of the former, which will be only hypothetical, without intending to substitute any other existing interpretations. Laozi imagines that people live simple lives, with few desires and without traveling to other places. If we accept that the ideal state is a hyperreal world, we can make comparison between the two worlds; find out their similarities, as well as differences....
摘要:It seems that the Truth-teller is either true or false, but there is no accepted principle determining which it is. From this point of view, the Truth-teller is a hypodox. A hypodox is a conundrum like a paradox, but consistent. Sometimes, accepting an additional principle will convert a hypodox into a paradox. Conversely, in some cases, retracting or restricting a principle will convert a paradox to a hypodox. This last point suggests a new method of avoiding inconsistency. This article provides a significant example. The Liar paradox can be defused to a hypodox by relatively minimally restricting three principles: the T-schema, substitution of identicals and universal instantiation. These restrictions are not arbitrary. For each, I identify the source of a contradiction given some presumptions. Then I propose each restriction as a reasonable way to deal with that source of contradiction....
摘要:Conceptual-Network-Based Theory of Science (CNBTS) is presented. It is confronted with the existing philosophies of science rather than with particular scientific theories. The conceptual network, constituting the “substance” of the human psyche, is composed of continuous concepts meaning by connotation. Concepts representing certain aspects of the reality are of completely different nature, than these aspects themselves. Nevertheless, the structure of the conceptual network of science is more or less isomorphic with the structure of the external world (semi-representative realism). The collective conceptual network of science is in a sense a less determined (less precise, more vague) sum, mean or resultant of the individual conceptual networks of particular scientists. During the science development, its conceptual network entwines the physical reality, as a spider web entwines a stony sculpture. The appearance of new theories, paradigms and research programmes consists in a development of new, differently structured fragments (conceptual maps) of the conceptual network of science. Scientific theories and hypotheses cannot be entirely true or false. They can only adhere better or worse to (various aspects of) the external reality, and the progress in science consists in an increase of the degree of this adherence. Hitherto well-working theories cannot be falsified, but only replaced with theories that are more isomorphic with, adhere better to vaster areas of reality....
[期刊论文] Cédric Gaucherel
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2019年 02期
摘要:A consensual pattern in the form of a circular map today emerges from connections between the major (high level) disciplines of science. Classifying sciences is useful in practice, but the resulting pattern in itself is rarely questioned. Here, I suggest that this pattern may, at least partly, be explained by the degree (intensity) of contingency of the objects they study. The contingency property appears to have two distinct yet interlinked origins: the major contingent events that have chronologically built our universe and the minor contingent events building every new object or phenomenon. This study provides a simple mathematical model to formalize causes generating the pattern of the global map of science. I propose to use the μ parameter of a branching process to more objectively quantify the degree of contingency of each science. Although biased by occidental culture and other confounding factors, the global pattern of sciences certainly provides crucial information on the deep nature of science....
摘要:Ontology is the name of the philosophical discipline that provides answers about what there is. The view laid out in the paper, i.e. austere realism, is realistic in that it defends the existence of a thought and language independent world. It is also inclined towards austerity in that it does not take this world to be as richly ontologically populated with entities as common sense initially presupposes. Yet it is a view that results from common sense taking a reflexive attitude about its ontological commitments. Despite its austere consequences, according to this view, many thoughts and sentences expressed by common sense are true, provided that truth is not considered as direct correspondence, i.e. not as the ultimate ontological correspondence to the world. This is enabled by the construal of truth as indirect correspondence that merges the world and contextually operative semantic standards. Such a combined ontological cum semantic view seems a plausible and a well defendable position....
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