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摘要:Background: Depressive disorder is a serious and common problem among adolescents and young adults in China, as they are engaged in an important period of psychological development. It is necessary to make an accessible tool to measure their knowledge situation towards depression. Methods: 461 respondents from two schools were recruited in this study from September 2017 to March 2018. Internal consistence, factor analysis and content validity index (CVI) were used to evaluate the reliability and validity of Chinese version Depression Literacy Questionnaire. Results: The Cronbach’s α of 0.885 revealed good internal consistency of the reliability. The CVI of 0.989 and the EFA reflected good validity of D-Lit. Conclusions: The Chinese version D-Lit was proved reliable and valid among Chinese adolescence and young adults to assess status of knowledge towards DD....
[期刊论文] Sefa Bulut
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2019年 02期
摘要:Today modern people suffer from mental illnesses and depression is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children and adults. The treatment of this disorder is long, expensive and sometimes there are no mental health professionals or medical opportunities to treat it. Therefore, we should understand the etiology of this problem and seek alternative methods for healing. This paper deals with non-traditional approach for the treatment of this mental health problem. Researchers found that one of the fundamental reasons for the depression is isolation, loneliness and lack of social support. If people can get some degree of social and emotional support, they will get through the difficult times easily and smoothly. Thus, we should provide natural settings for ourselves and our children to exercise their social skills and learn how to socialize....
摘要:Objectives: In Bangladesh 16.05% of adult population suffer from psychiatric illness of which 28.7% suffer from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Although antidepressants are the recommended first-line pharmacological treatments for MDD, their prescribing patterns have not been studied in Bangladesh. This study investigates antidepressant prescription patterns at the outpatient psychiatry department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Bangladesh. Material and methods: A retrospective review of the case notes of psychiatry outpatients at BSMMU was carried out between April 2014 and December 2015. A total of 281 MDD patients (aged 18 to 60 years) were randomly recruited. Relevant information was obtained by collection of prescription details from the patients or their relatives by face to face interview. Results: The average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 2.4. Antidepressants were prescribed in 83.6% (235) encounters that constituted 76.5% (235) of the total number of prescribed drugs. About 82.5% (232) antidepressants were prescribed in combination with psychotherapy. Nearly 50% (141) of prescribed antidepressants were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Among all antidepressant classes, escitalopram (22.1%), mirtazapine (21.4%), and sertraline (16.4%) were the leading drug prescribed. Lithium was prescribed to 4.6% (13) of patients. Conclusion: Novel antidepressant (SSRIs and SNRIs) drugs were prescribed more compared to traditional drugs (TCAs and TeCAs). In many cases, antidepressants were prescribed in combination with psychotherapy which is good practice to treat depression. It is expected that this investigation will be helpful to treat MDD patients with more precision in drug assortment and benefit to the patients....
摘要:This Editorial highlights how difficult is the correlation between Mood Disorder and Ischemic Heart Disease. In particular, it highlights the serious problem of suicide risk. This long-standing problem, object of controversy in the scientific literature, requires insights that should avoid simple surveys entrusted to the questionnaires, and the subjectivity of the clinical judgment. The text of the Editorial suggests the opportunity for substantial insights in the study of biological markers that give greater certainty of psychiatric diagnosis. The effort of the authors, in this sense, has proved highly effective in recognizing some of the major psychiatric disorders (Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and suicidal thoughts). Much work, however, remains to be done. The further suggestion which can be obtained from the script is that the complexity of mental phenomena must be faced with complex mathematical tools, to find diagnostic certainty and not diagnosis of opinion....
摘要:Introduction: Autobiographic memory allows shaping self identity over the time. Its main function is storing of information about oneself, which allows consolidating one's own identity and provides the sense of stability. Its disfunction might be organic or functional in origin and may often be a manifestation of a serious disease. Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare cognitive functioning in the scope of autobiographical memory between a female patient with diagnosed dissociative amnesia and five female patients with diagnosed recurrent depressive disorders. Method: The following tools were used in the study: episodic memory test and MMPI-2 questionnaire (Gough Dissimulation Index). Results: The general results achieved by patient diagnosed with dissociative amnesia in the individual tasks used to examine autobiographical memory are comparable with the results achieved by the patients with diagnosed depression. However, the results suggest the presence of qualitative differences related to the type of remembered information and location of the events on the life line....
摘要:Even though occurrence of depression in older adults is considered a major public health problem, very few Indian studies have made an attempt to study the mental health of elderly residing in institutionalized settings such as nursing homes and old age homes. The purpose of this study is to examine the presence and severity of depression and extent of negative attitudes about the future in institutionalized elderly in India. Data were collected by administering the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) on residents of different old age homes across Delhi NCR (N = 21). Results revealed presence of mild depression and mild hopelessness in the institutionalized elderly. Further, a positive strong correlation was found between depression and hopelessness = 0.83). Social and emotional losses associated with institutionalization are likely to lead to depressive responses in the elderly. The findings of the study draw attention to the neglected and apathetic conditions of institutionalized elderly, an imperative concern for the Indian society....
摘要:Recent results show higher perceived stress and more dysfunctional coping in depressed individuals, and suggest that dyadic approaches focused on enhancing couples coping can be useful in treating depression. At the same time, a long tradition of research on couples with a depressed partner suggests potential differences between couples who are more or less maritally distressed, as well as due to the gender of depressed spouse. The present study investigates the association of gender and marital satisfaction with stress and coping patterns in couples with a depressed partner by comparing 4 groups (maritally distressed and non-distressed couples in which either the male or female partner was suffering from depression). Both questionnaires and observed marital interaction tasks were used to assess all constructs. Evidence was found for greater stress and stress generating coping practices for depressed individuals and more dysfunctional dyadic coping in maritally distressed couples. In addition, we identified gender-related patterns associated with depression and marital distress that may be important in working with couples. Coping oriented couples approaches may benefit from consideration of gender differences to maximize therapeutic effectiveness with a range of couples with a depressed partner....
摘要:It is difficult to treat depression because there is no established method for treatment. Many drugs have been developed by Pharmaceutical companies to treat depression. Depression affects many patients. It was necessary to focus on “meprobamate” which was once said to be a magic drug. It was found that “methocarbamol” is more suitable for treating depression than “meprobamate”....
摘要:Background: A number of patients that attend primary care medical settings present with distressing bodily complaints which are not attributable to organic (physical) pathology. The difficulties in diagnosing and treating such patients have been observed by many Health Care Practitioners. This study assesses the presence of psychological conditions and attempts to make psychiatric diagnoses (using a standardized diagnostic instrument) in patients presenting with Functional Somatic Symptoms (FSS) in a primary care clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital. Method: The study was carried out at the General Out Patients Clinic (GOPC) of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH). It was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 100 randomly selected patients presenting with Functional Somatic Symptoms. Those who consented filled the modified version of the Enugu Somatization Scale and were interviewed with the Schedule for Clinical Assessments in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) for possible psychiatric diagnoses. Results: While 41 of the selected patients were males, 59 were females. Their mean age was 38.5 (SD = 12.2). Frequent headaches and body heat (internal heat) were the most prevalent symptoms in the patients. ICD-10 psychiatry diagnoses using the SCAN were made in 79% of the patients studied. Depressive disorders (diagnosed in 48% of the patients) and anxiety disorders (in 21%) were the most common diagnoses. Older patients were mainly diagnosed of depressive disorders (p = 0.016) whereas younger patients tended to receive diagnoses of anxiety disorders (p = 0.039). Conclusion: Patients presenting with FSS may have diagnosable psychiatric disorders which if not recognized would go untreated. Psychiatric referral may therefore reduce the sufferings of the patients....
摘要:This study examined the association among comorbidity, type of depression treatment, and depression treatment adequacy among privately insured depression patients using claims data from 165,569 employees. Individuals newly diagnosed with depression (n = 2364) were identified using ICD-9 diagnosis codes. Logistic regression models were used to determine if certain medical and psychiatric comorbidities were associated with depression treatment type (medication only, psychotherapy only, or combined treatment) and treatment adequacy. Approximately half of the sample (56.7%) received medication only, 26.8% received psychotherapy and medication, and 16.5% received psychotherapy only. The medication only group had the highest rate (50.2%) of receiving minimally adequate treatment, while those who received the combined treatment had the lowest rate (21.0%). Patients with comorbid anxiety disorders were significantly more likely to receive combined treatment or psychotherapy alone. Those who had comorbid musculoskeletal pain were significantly more likely to receive combined treatment. After controlling for treatment type, patients with comorbid diabetes and asthma had higher rates of receiving adequate treatment than patients with other comorbid conditions. There is a continous need for practice-system level interventions to improve the proportion of privately insured patients with new depressive episodes who receive adequate depression treatment....
摘要:Approximately 19% of women experience minor or major depression in the first three months following childbirth. Most research suggests that women with withdrawn attachment styles are less likely to be depressed. However, unlike mothers in Western culture, mothers in Japan with withdrawn attachment styles are reported to have greater potential to become depressed. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the behaviors and situational awareness of Japanese mothers' with withdrawn attachment styles during pregnancy in order to reveal the specific dynamics underlying the withdrawn style. Interview data were analyzed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Of the 84 women assessed, 12 were determined to have a withdrawn style, and based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, five demonstrated the onset of postpartum depression (PPD). Two themes regarding relationships with partners emerged including: 1) confiding behavior: the importance of what is shared; and 2) need to be heard: wanting sympathy rather than criticism. Additionally, three themes describing mothers' experiences during the first postnatal month emerged: 1) overwhelming experiences: the childbirth experience; 2) seeking help: behavior changes altered relationships; and 3) experience with the baby. Withdrawn style mothers keep distance from crisis, avoid closeness with others, and opt to manage problems by themselves. However, childbirth and infant care are not easily managed in this style. Mothers who used childbirth to confide in their partners may have reduced the severity of insecurity or developed a more secure style. Healthcare professionals are in the best position to develop good relationships with new mothers and provide support that focuses more on emotional factors and self-esteem levels....
摘要:Differences in the Defense Mechanism Technique modified (DMTm), a percept-genetic tachistoscopic technique, between 56 patients with a main diagnosis of mild, moderate or severe unipolar depression and 42 with a main diagnosis of somatoform disorder were studied. As expected, the affect defenses of inhibition, introaggression and barrier isolation—all through their specified motive related to the depressive position of the affect positions model of the Andersson developmental and psychodynamic model of the mind—appeared more often with the depressive than the somatoform patients. Repression scored at the place of the threatening person in the DMTm pictures (Pp-repression) was more often found with the depressive patients, projected introaggression and no Pp-repression but repression scored at the place of the non-threatening person (H-repression) with the somatoform. In total less than four scorings of affect anxiety and affect defense, seen to indicate alexithymia, characterized the somatoform patients and those with mild depression. Denial through reversal II 3 and denial through reversal IV were common with the somatoform patients and those with severe depression. Denial was uncommon with mild depression. Denial, denial through reversal II 3 and denial through reversal IV increased the more severe the depression. The findings were interpreted according to the Andersson model....
摘要:The aim of this letter is to stimulate the psychiatrists to a greater awareness on the biomolecular aspects of the psychopathology. The letter highlights the inconsistencies of the DSM-V, where, and once again, it ignores the biological consistency of the “psychopathological” phenomenon. It is also underlined that the diagnostic error, in course of the first manifestation of a mood disorder, is extremely high, with all the risk that this error involves, as a result of an incorrect medication therapy....
摘要:In this paper we discuss the role of the fatty acid composition of brain cells and in platelets in the emergence of psychiatric disorders such as major depression and the bipolar disorder. We argue that the linoleic acid concentration plays the role of a control parameter and there is a critical value of the linoleic acid concentration that determines a transition from healthy mental state to a pathological state. We draw an analogy with symmetry breaking in physical systems where at a bifurcation point on the phase diagram, infinitesimal perturbations to the state of the system result in a transition to a new global attractor state. This is in contrast to the situation away from the critical point where cause and effect are usually found in a linear or almost linear relationship. This observation may have major implications for both diagnostics and therapeutics of mental disorders when viewed as triggered by molecular causes....
摘要:Object: To introduce soft bipolar progress in China. Methods: We introduced soft bipolar concept into Chinese psychiatry and some studies about soft bipolar had been carried out by Chinese psychiatrist according to our soft bipolar criteria. Results: These studies include as following: 1) the proportion of bipolar disorder with depressive episode for the first time; 2) unipolar depression and bipolar depression compared in psychopathology; 3) the difference in personality and temperament between unipolar and bipolar; 4) family history of bipolar disorder; 5) antidepressants and soft bipolar. All these were used for establishing Chinese advising diagnostic criteria of soft bipolar disorder. It indicated that concept of soft bipolar was not only receipted, but also studied. Conclusion: Some progress of soft bipolar in China has been done....
摘要:Parental depression has a devastating impact on family life and children's social adjustment and mental health and little information exists as to how parental depression is associated with children's health-related quality of life. The present paper describes the research protocol of a Greek randomized clinical trial, examining the effectiveness of two preventive interventions (a family intervention and a psychoeducational discussion with parents) for families struggling with parental depression. An important question in this research is what factors can better predict the improvement of child outcomes in these families. Another issue of special interest is to explore the association of children's health-related quality of life with parental mental health symptoms and to examine to what extent each intervention can have a positive impact on this domain. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with depressive disorders and their offspring aged 8 - 16 years old are randomly assigned to the two intervention groups and they complete a series of questionnaires prior to interventions and 4, 10 and 18 months after intervention. This study will offer an evidence base for developing relevant initiatives in a national level and for integrating preventive actions for child mental health in routine clinical practice with adult depressed patients....
摘要:Clinical diagnoses of emotional problems and depression are serious global health care issues among children and adolescents in today's society. Global estimates of the prevalence of childhood and adolescent emotional problems and depression have been found to be growing worldwide. Anxiety and mood disorders are very common emotional problems or disorders identified among this population. Similarly, major depressive disorder (MDD) is now considered one of the most common diagnoses among children and adolescents with the first depressive episode generally identified in late childhood or early adolescence. Likewise, co-morbid disorders including emotional problems have been found to significantly impact the psycho-social-emotional and mental health status of children and adolescents. Routine screening and assessment for emotional problems and depression among children and adolescents has been recommended for Health Care Providers (HCP's) in clinical settings. However, many children and adolescents are not routinely screened and unfortunately this results in missed or under-diagnosing. For these reasons, raising the awareness of HCP's in clinical practice regarding these issues may significantly improve routine screening, early detection, and treatment efforts among children and adolescents. A synopsis of the current literature including implications for clinical practice, research, and evidence-based intervention is discussed....
摘要:Aim of the study: The main purpose of this work was to verify, through the study of three fatty acids of platelets (namely: Palmitic Acid—PA, Linoleic Acid—LA, Arachidonic Acid—AA) the ability to distinguish adult subjects with Major Depression (MD) from those with Bipolar Disorder (BD), using an artificial neural network (Self Organizing Map—SOM) and an indirect index of the viscosity of the membrane (B2), in agreement with previous results; secondly, the ability to understand any similarities between children and adults in the molecular characterization of mood disorders, both in general and in relation to a subset of individuals with suicidal ideation, indicated by the survey instruments used (SOM). Design: The study design, in order to achieve the objectives, has forecast the recruitment of three groups of subjects without regard to sex, age, food intake patterns, or pharmacological therapies: 1) Controls; 2) Subjects with Major Depression; 3) Subjects with Bipolar Disorder. They were provided for the following investigations: 1) Platelet Fatty Acids analysis; 2) Plasma and platelet serotonin levels; 3) Oxidative stress and inflammation markers. Moreover, the data of the fatty acids of platelets, previously obtained by a group of children were used, for comparison, in the SOM, with adults surveyed. Subjects participating in the study: All participants, volunteer, were recruited in the judgment of psychiatrists as they presented themselves to the office visit of the “Dipartimento di Salute Mentale”, ASUR 4, Fano, Italy. All subjects were submitted to a semi-structured interview based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI), Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and Hypomania/Mania Symptom Checklist (HCL-32) were also applied to each patient. Adult subjects who did not give consent, patients with a diagnosis other than an affective disorder and subjects in their first clinical episode were excluded. The study was double blind. Outcomes: The results obtained have confirmed the main objective of the study. It was possible to obtain, in fact, the recognition of individuals with Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder, using the SOM and the index B2. Value of the study: The methodology used in this study may be of utility, such as quantitative diagnostic support to the psychiatrist, in order to reduce the high error that occurs in the first diagnosis, with regard to mood disorders. Limitations of this study: The limitations of this study are mainly related to the number of controls. They should have been more numerous such as the number of suicidal ideations. About the comparison with children, the main limitation seems to be the lack of psychiatric diagnosis of children, so that any results just assume the value of hypotheses. Future Research: Because of the strong classificatory properties of the SOM, it would require a RCT in a larger sample of ...
摘要: style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">Background:?The present longitudinal study examined predictors of compulsive style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">i style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">nternet use and depression. Method: Adolescents, 21 males and 20 females, completed online questionnaires with a 12 style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">- style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">month interval. Results: Social style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">i style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">nternet use (i.e., using instant messaging and social networks) was associated with decreased levels of depression. High support satisfaction, use of social networking, and instant messaging contributed to lower changes in compulsive Internet use. Conclusion: The effects of social style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">i style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">nternet use in combination with different psychosocial factors seem to have more positive effects than negative style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">ones style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">on change in depression and the development of compulsive style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">i style="font-size:8.5pt;font-family:"">nternet use. /> />...
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