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摘要:Great strategies are worth nothing if they cannot be implemented [1]. It can be extended to say that better to implement effectively a second grade strategy than to ruin a first class strategy with ineffective implementation [2]. Thus, effective implementation of strategies is important to the success of every entity. There are many ways of classifications of strategy. However, there are ten schools of thought that dominate recent thinking on strategy. These ten schools or models of strategy formulation were proposed by Henry Mintzberg, Bruce Ahlstrand and Joseph Lampel in their book “Strategy Safari: A Guided Tour through the Wilds of Strategic Management”. The “learning school” is one of these schools. From the perspective of this school, there is the emergence of strategies as people act individually but most of the time through concerted efforts, learning about a phenomenon as well as their entity's competence in dealing with it. There are criticisms of this model saying there is the danger of going to the opposite extreme which may result in no strategy, lost strategy or wrong strategy. However, the study provides insight into the adoption and application of this strategy as well as the enormous benefits that accrue to learning organizations. The authors, having reviewed a vast number of literature, have summarized the concept of the learning school as “all hands-on-deck phenomenon” where individuals or employees are empowered in teams to improve their desire and ability to create and explore what they want in order to understand and manage the organization and its task environment....
摘要:The importance of vision in guiding a leader and an organization is paramount. Given the importance of vision, leaders will often seek assistance from tools in order to amplify their vision. Big data is one of the primary tools commonly sought. In this brief article, the advantages and disadvantages of relying on big data are explored. Plato's allegory of the cave is used to advance the position that a proper vision ought to dwell in experience first and only secondarily resort to abstraction....
摘要:This study examined factors that influenced households with non-agriculture enterprises to borrow funds as capital for their enterprises in Malawi. Additionally, the study aimed at classifying households as borrowers and non-borrowers, but also classified these households according to their liquidity status in which credit could be a component. The primary data for this study was sourced from the Integrated Household Panel Survey (IHPS) conducted in 2013 by the National Statistics Office of Malawi. Out of 4000 households that formed the sample, 1249 households were reported to own an enterprise; representing 31.23% of the overall sample. The logit model was used in this study and results showed that borrowing was influenced by age of household head, size of household, poverty status of household and enterprise sector. Furthermore, liquidity status was influenced by education attained by household head and poverty status of household. Poverty status of the households was found to influence both borrowing and liquidity non-constraint of households in Malawi. The paper shows the need to focus on poor households that are unable to support their enterprises with personal savings. In addition, policy makers must design programs that will provide credit to poor households operating manufacturing type of enterprises....
摘要:Whether internal controls can effectively constrain earnings management, which is a hot topic in recent years. I investigate the impact of internal control on earnings quality based on a life cycle perspective using data of listed companies of China's market from 2010-2013. The empirical findings indicate that high quality internal control can suppress accrual earnings management and real earnings management (except for discretionary expenses manipulating earnings management) effectively, whilst in different life cycle stages (LCSs), the relation between internal control quality and accounting earnings quality (accrual quality and real earnings quality) is different. For the accrual quality aspect, in mature LCS, internal control quality and accrual quality is positively correlated. In growth or decline LCS, the relation between internal quality and accrual quality is not significant. For the real earnings quality aspect, in decline LCS, high quality internal control can improve real earnings quality; in growth LCS or mature LCS, the relation is just the opposite....
摘要:Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the application of leadership styles in multinational organizations operating in the United States for their global brand management. Design/Methodology/Approach: This quantitative study design uses three hundred and seventy (370) sample units that were drawn from all levels in organizations in collecting data for the final analysis. Findings: Situational leadership style is the most dominant leadership style applied in global brand management. However, certain critical perspectives at the time of investigation revealed from the study are discussed in the paper. Originality/Value: This study is the first to provide underpinnings of employee's perception of leadership....
摘要:This pioneering study constitutes initial research on the topic of the thinking language of elementary school teachers in the Arab education system in Israel. The language of thinking can contribute significantly to every child and every classroom. However, written and spoken texts in the classroom at all levels use very few words referring to thinking. The current study attempts to bring the topic of thinking onto the agenda of the education system in general and the Arab education system in particular. This education system functions in a society characterized as developing and marked by a traditional culture. Thus, teaching in the Arab education system in Israel is still primarily a verbal activity. The objective of the study was to examine the language of thinking among teachers in the Arab elementary schools. It uses qualitative methodology through analysis of quantitative measures. The research tool involved the structured recording of the protocols of 38 lessons. The results of the study show that the thinking language of teachers in Arab elementary schools is sparse, ambiguous and inaccurate. Among the study's recommendations are to offer teachers continuing education courses on this topic, to train teachers at teacher training colleges in the language of thinking, and to allot special courses for teacher trainees. Such training programs should provide teacher trainees with experiential learning experiences to understand and develop their thinking, enabling them to use the language of thinking with their pupils....
摘要:The paper investigates the challenges faced by Non-Executive and Independent Directors in ensuring that good corporate governance practices are adhered to in non-listed Ghanaian family business at all times using non-listed family business in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The findings revealed that the presence of non-executive and independent directors had no significant effect on the performance of non-listed family businesses in Ghana since they were dormant in most of the roles expected to be discharged by them and active in only few responsibilities or roles. It is also discovered that the boards of non-listed family businesses meet only when there is a problem to solve and not regularly. The owner-manager-chief executive office-board chairman, makes all decisions and ensures its implementation. The results draw the attention of policy makers to the position of non-executive and independent directors in family businesses given the enormous positive contribution they play to the economic development of the nations and their contributions to the society in general....
摘要:In recent years, flower e-commerce develops rapidly and attracts extensive attention from relevant fields; flower e-commerce of personalized customization is the unique development pattern. On the basis of illustrating the representative flower e-commerce enterprise of personalized customization in China—The Beast, this paper tries to analyze the unique marketing strategy of The Beast via 4C theoretical model and social media marketing theory, so as to provide references for the future flower e-commerce enterprises. According to the researches, The Beast adopts the e-commerce mode operated by new media and development strategy of lateral extension. It chooses the consumer-oriented pulling-type marketing strategy; taste and fashion are its core competitiveness. The important means of maintaining customer group is to keep a smooth and effective “dialogue” and “communication” with consumers through weibo. The key measure of maintaining fans activity is to propagandize the company products and image by relying on powerful star opinion leaders....
摘要:Financing Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) to achieve the desirable growth and expansion has been topical for governments, policymakers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), financial and non-financial institutions. The recent upsurge in the interest of finding ways of bridging the financing gap faced by SMEs by these stakeholders have been necessitated by the enormous contributions of SMEs to the economic development and growth of countries in areas of job creation, GDP and entrepreneurial skill development. This research therefore sought to access the role of one of the stakeholders, microfinance institutions (MFIs) in helping to bridge the financing gap faced by SMEs in Ghana. The research established that there was indeed the existence of SME financing gap in the country as most of them were denied access to credit by commercial banks and other financial institutions. The research revealed that the operations of microfinance institutions (MFIs) are having positive impact on SMEs. The study also revealed some risk mitigation tools used by MFIs in granting loans to SMEs which included provision of collateral security in the form of land or any other valuable asset, business records, credit history among others. The research concluded with some recommendations on how the SME financing gap can further be bridged by MFIs and other stakeholders which included provision of support services to SMEs by MFIs such as training services in credit management as well as the need for MFIs to improve service delivery such as faster loan approval times....
摘要:Many organizations frequently establish information system development (ISD) project teams in order to solve specific problems. Knowledge tends to be stored within individuals who are often dispersed over time. However, knowledge integration is required to solve new types of problems. The transactive memory system (TMS) has been suggested as a critical mechanism for facilitating knowledge integration as part of the team's processes. TMS can help the knowledge team to recognize the presence of individuals with diverse knowledge and optimize their value. In this paper, we use TMS and the concept of “collective mind” to explain how the team members' heedful inter-relations and mindful comprehension function within the social system. We also discuss in detail how antecedent factors affect TMS. Drawing on data from a study of 339 part-time MBA students who were members of knowledge teams, the findings of this research showed that all our hypotheses were statically significant. Discussions and implications for academics and practitioners are provided....
摘要:Behavioral finance suggests that mispricing is positively related to corporate investment, and overvalued (undervalued) firms tend to over (under)-invest, which leads to the inefficiency of investment, and we studies whether institutional investors enlarge or reduce the impact of mispricing on investment, by decomposing the market-to-book ratio into mispricing and growth components. The result shows that investor sentiment directly affects the corporate investment. This investment- mispricing link is more pronounced in firms with higher institutional investor ownership. Our evidence suggests that institutional investors such as insurance firms and trust will amplify this link. This study can provide real economy with evidence, and evaluate the role institution play and economy impact, which have certain reference significance for the securities market regulation and policy making departments....
摘要:Since the reform and opening up, China's transport development has made brilliant achievements and has a strong support for the rapid development of economy and society. In this paper, we collate, screen and analyze a total of 32-year data from 1980 to 2011 on traffic volume in Jilin Province, then we build a partial least squares regression model to the quantitatively predict and analyze the relations of transportation construction and economic development....
摘要:This paper examines how advertising effectiveness can be defined and measured. We propose a 3D-effectiveness key performance indicator involving the weighted prominence of three factors: recall, brand image and buying intention. In this way, the indicator proposed improves the metrics of this type known in the Spanish market. Using experimental data about 20 fixed brands and other 12 variable brands collected along the 52 weeks of a year, we find that this indicator reflects consumer's perceptions and that it fits advertising company's needs. We have developed a web tool to provide the market with a benchmark measure of advertising effectiveness. Finally, we discuss future research lines....
摘要:This study examined the level of technostress experienced among Nigerian auditors. It also identified the strategies adopted by workers of audit firms to cope with technostress. This was with a view to determine the effects of technostress on the performance of auditors. The study relied on primary data derived from the administration of questionnaire on auditors of four auditing firms in Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample fraction of 50% from each of the selected firms. Thus, 825 out of 1650 population were identified for this study. Data collected were analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The results showed that the level of technostress experienced by auditors on the whole was on the moderate side (47.8%), in spite of their dependence on technological facilities. However, it was observed that some individual auditors experienced high technostress level in terms of slow computer speed (86.7%), slow internet connection (84.5%), total network failure (79.0%), and meeting up with deadlines (57.1%). In order to cope effectively with technostress on individual's levels, respondents suggested the provision of adequate training for employees before the introduction of any new technological facility, which was acclaimed by 94.9% of the respondents. The result of this study further showed that the less the level of technostress, the higher the performance among individual auditors, although, there was no significant relationship between technostress and performance 2 = 1.690; p = 0.430) at the organizational level. The study concluded that given the pace of change and innovations in technology, the auditor's job might be a very stressful one with demands and changes to grapple with. It is thus crucial that auditors and their management system appreciate the different responses to technology use, as well as fashion out adaptable ways of adjusting to it....
摘要:This paper examines the effects of technology in the banking industry. Based on an expansive review of literature, the paper describes various factors in this area. Technology has a direct effect on the functioning of the banks. With technological advancement, the customers benefit and the bank gains by getting more clients. Most businesses desire to offer the best services, products and customer relations to their customers because these activities increase the retention rate of customers. These activities also have a direct effect on customer satisfaction. But it's the complexity of this process that brings a challenge to marketers. The paper looks at technological aspect of the process. This is because for any marketer or business practioner to succeed at managing a good customer relationship program, there is need for the adoption of supportive technology. This type of technology assists in the managing of the process through the maintainance of a customer data base, implementation and monitoring. Using a case study approach [1] shows that one of the business units she studied was able to achieve a 270% increase in business unit profits (above target) by implementing several straightforward Customer Relationship Management (CRM) measures. The paper analyses the nature of the banking industry and the role of technology in the Customer Relationship Management process and its implementation....
摘要:With the development of China's market economy, variety of enterprises have made considerable development. And they made great contributions on strengthening the comprehensive development for China. The problems existed in human resources management has restricted the further development of the enterprise. By doing comprehensive research on the present situation of human resource management of an enterprise in Tai'an city, we try to analyze the specific problems existed in human resource management and to put forward a series of solutions....
摘要:Based on the view of equity theory, this article divides salary transparency into four conditions through two arrangements—result equity and process equity. The paper draws a conclusion that the effect of salary transparency on staff's sense of fairness will vary with enterprise actual situation and then it discusses the key factors of the influence of choosing the salary transparency. On this basis, according to the financial reporting, the article recognizes enterprise life cycle and chooses the corresponding salary transparency plan as well....
摘要:According to World Economic Forum data, if an area's average income per capita is over 9000 US dollars, then knowledge and technological innovation will be the most important forces driving its economic growth. In Taiwan 98% of the companies are small and medium enterprises (SMEs), and they play a fundamental role in the sustainable development of Taiwan's economy, but due to limited funding, very few of them have established research and development (R&D) departments. Over 70% of the R & D resources in Taiwan are held by universities, which have become hubs for new knowledge and technologies. Through university-industry collaboration, original and breakthrough ideas, inventions, and innovations are systematically channeled from universities into industrial applications and used to develop an entrepreneurial economy. This method has been proven effective in many developing countries. This paper examines how the government policy helps university incubators enhance R & D ability and subsequently promote production efficiency and product quality....
摘要:Based on Upper Echelons theory, this article makes use of a sample of 130 companies that experienced CEO succession due to performance decline to investigate whether the TMT heterogeneity impact on corporate performance and how the leadership structure of corporation moderates the relationship between them. It is shown that TMT age heterogeneity has a U-shaped relationship with corporate performance; TMT tenure heterogeneity and TMT educational levels heterogeneity have inverted U-shaped relationship with corporate performance; while the leadership structure of corporation has a moderating effect on the relationship between TMT age heterogeneity, TMT tenure heterogeneity and corporate performance. The findings of this study would be helpful to cultivate and construct the entrepreneurial TMT, and to design corporate leadership structure....
摘要:This paper aims to shed light into boardroom processes by bringing together the literature on organization behaviour and that of boardroom process in order to form a model of boardroom learning capability. Board process is viewed as primarily a learning process whereby individual members with their knowledge, skills and external networks engage in a collective learning process that culminates in a “shared understanding” about the problems and respective solutions and increased “board social capital”. It can be argued that boards that do better at this “collective learning process” will display greater effectiveness and ultimately better firm performance. In learning organisation's terms, one can speak of “board learning capability” (BLC). The chairman of the board has a pivotal role in facilitating and mastering the collective learning process in the boardroom. Central to our model are the interplay between the “chairman role and skill set” and the “board learning challenges”. Building on research literature that focuses on learning organisations and on boardroom processes, we propose a model of “board learning capability” (BLC), which could shed additional light on the boardroom process dynamics. In the future, an organisation could develop a “board's learning capability” measure to complement “good governance” indices which rely heavily on structure and composition proxies, despite limited empirical evidence. Empirical testing of the model can be of value for boardroom development and for risk and reputational concern minimization by uncovering differences in “boardroom learning capability” in different governance domains....
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