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摘要:We propose a nanotube-based erbium-doped fiber laser that can deliver conventional soliton (CS) and stretched pulse (SP) based on D-shaped fiber saturable absorber (DF-SA) where evanescent-field interaction works. The novel Nanotube-based Fiber Laser can generate SP or CS by tuning pump power and polarization controller (PC) properly. The net cavity dispersion of laser is slightly negative. In our experiment, by optimizing the PC in the cavity, CS and SP can be obtained at the central wavelengths of 1530.6 nm and 1530.3 nm due to on carbon nanotubes and the spectral filtering effect induced by nonlinear polarization rotation. Although the acquired CS and SP nearly have the same central wavelengths, they show distinct optical spectra, 3-dB bandwidths. The proposed fiber laser with switchable CS and SP is attractive for ultrashort pulse generation and fast measurements in practical applications....
[期刊论文] Mukhtar Ahmed Rana
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2018年 3期
摘要:A new method is proposed here aiming at designing a shielding wall with the efficiency significantly higher than that of traditional designs. This new design arises from the idea of using channeling in multilayered shielding wall structure, each layer composed of bent crystallites distributed in a way that each layer covers a small section of angular range of which wall is exposed. Part of the incident charged particles will get channeled in bent crystallites in each layer. Bending of channeled particles in bent crystallites will change their directions in the wall increasing their path lengths in the wall which would enhance its shielding efficiency for charged particle radiations. Proposed design is useful for radiation shielding in fission power plants, future fusion reactors and air travel....
摘要:We propose a nanotube-based erbium-doped fiber laser that can deliver conventional soliton (CS) and stretched pulse (SP) based on D-shaped fiber saturable absorber (DF-SA) where evanescent-field interaction works. The novel Nanotube-based Fiber Laser can generate SP or CS by tuning pump power and polarization controller (PC) properly. The net cavity dispersion of laser is slightly negative. In our experiment, by optimizing the PC in the cavity, CS and SP can be obtained at the central wavelengths of 1530.6 nm and 1530.3 nm due to on carbon nanotubes and the spectral filtering effect induced by nonlinear polarization rotation. Although the acquired CS and SP nearly have the same central wavelengths, they show distinct optical spectra, 3-dB bandwidths. The proposed fiber laser with switchable CS and SP is attractive for ultrashort pulse generation and fast measurements in practical applications....
摘要:The main reasons for the occurrence of temperature error and perspective directions of decreasing of its value are presented by improving the device design based on the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and numerical methods of processing the results of measurements by this device. The most essential influence on changes in results of measurements can be rendered by temperature changes in the analyte refractive index. It is shown that the application of the integrated temperature stabilization of the device with the test substance, and numerical processing of the measurement results for compensation of temperature changes of the test substance and the use of film heaters it is possible to reduce the measurement error of the refractive index of the analyte at least 30 times from 2.4 × 10~(-4) to 7.6 × 10~(-6)....
摘要:Scanning hardcopy non-metric images is one of the most important sources in digital mapping. Low-cost scanners are still widely used in many applications as they can produce digital images of comparable precisions to those produced by expensive professional scanners. Yet, inexpensive scanners introduce geometrical distortions in the measured image coordinates that must be assessed and compensated before using their products for further analysis. In this article, several 2D-to-2D transformation models were investigated to calibrate flatbed scanners with different resolutions and sizes. We evaluated the potential of each model using two gridded-crosses plotted on high-quality transparent sheets. Control coordinates were provided through a photogrammetric analytical plotter. After scanning the sheets, least squares matching was applied to determine the precise locations of the crosses. By comparing the control coordinates and those estimated from digitized images, it was found that the mathematical model based on the projective transformation gives the best results for standardizing the geometric properties of flatbed scanners. The results show that scanning resolution of 2400 dpi achieves the requirements for large-scale mapping applications....
摘要:Many agricultural applications, including improved crop production, precision agriculture, and phenotyping, rely on detailed field and crop information to detect and react to spatial variabilities. Mobile farm vehicles, such as tractors and sprayers, have the potential to operate as mobile sensing platforms, enabling the collection of large amounts of data while working. Open-source hardware and software components were integrated to develop a mobile plant-canopy sensing and monitoring system. The microcontroller-based system, which incorporated a Bluetooth radio, GPS receiver, infrared temperature and ultrasonic distance sensors, micro SD card storage, and voltage regulation components, was developed at a cost of US$292. The system was installed on an agricultural vehicle and tested in a soybean field. The monitoring system demonstrates an application of open-source hardware to agricultural research and provides a framework for similar or additional sensing applications....
摘要:In this work, it was developed the construction of a potentiostat for the execution of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) experiments, using an Agilent 33220a signal generator, a RIGOL 1064b oscilloscope and a protoboard for the connection of operational amplifiers to an electrochemical cell. The coordination of the global operation, in addition to data acquisition, was performed using a code generated in the LabVIEW program. The system analyzed was the corrosion of an 1100 aluminum plate in water, in order to compare the results obtained by other authors. The data acquisition consisted in obtaining the values of amplitude, RMS voltage and phase angle between the generated power signals and the current output, in order to obtain the impedance of the system, for different signal frequencies. Finally, the values obtained were plotted on a Nyquist diagram. In this way, the objective of this article is to demonstrate that with conventional laboratory equipment it is possible to implement an experimental device, capable of delivering results similar to those obtained by commercial equipment....
摘要:The design and development of a cryogenic Ultra-Low-Noise Signal Amplification (ULNA) and detection system for spectroscopy of ultra-cold systems are reported here for the operation in the 0.5 - 4 GHz spectrum of frequencies (the “L” and “S” microwave bands). The design is suitable for weak RF signal detection and spectroscopy from ultra-cold systems confined in cryogenic RF cavities, as entailed in a number of physics, physical chemistry and analytical chemistry applications, such as NMR/NQR/EPR and microwave spectroscopy, Paul traps, Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC's) and cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED). Using a generic Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) architecture for a GaAs enhancement mode High-Electron Mobility FET device, our design has especially been devised for scientific applications where ultra-low-noise amplification systems are sought to amplify and detect weak RF signals under various conditions and environments, including cryogenic temperatures, with the least possible noise susceptibility. The amplifier offers a 16 dB gain and a 0.8 dB noise figure at 2.5 GHz, while operating at room temperature, which can improve significantly at low temperatures. Both dc and RF outputs are provided by the amplifier to integrate it in a closed-loop or continuous-wave spectroscopy system or connect it to a variety of instruments, a factor which is lacking in commercial LNA devices. Following the amplification stage, the RF signal detection is carried out with the help of a post-amplifier and detection system based upon a set of Zero-Bias Schottky Barrier Diodes (ZBD's) and a high-precision ultra-low noise jFET operational amplifier. The scheme offers unique benefits of sensitive detection and very-low noise amplification for measuring extremely weak on-resonance signals with substantial low- noise response and excellent stability while eliminating complicated and expensive heterodyne schemes. The LNA stage is fully capable to be a part of low-temperature experiments while being operated in cryogenic conditions down to about 500 mK....
摘要:The broken rhythm of the heart activity of a person can lead to fatal consequences if it is not detected at an early stage. The article described a device for counting and indicating the number of violations of rhythm of cardiac activity. The device is intended for home use and does not require medical knowledge. If the patient will notice a trend towards the increasing number of arrhythmias, he must seek for cardiology advice....
摘要:The design and development of a cryogenic Ultra-Low-Noise Signal Amplification (ULNA) and detection system for spectroscopy of ultra-cold systems are reported here for the operation in the 0.5 - 4 GHz spectrum of frequencies (the "L" and "S" microwave bands). The design is suitable for weak RF signal detection and spectroscopy from ultra-cold systems confined in cryogenic RF cavities, as entailed in a number of physics, physical chemistry and analytical chemistry applications, such as NMR/NQR/EPR and microwave spectroscopy, Paul traps, Bose-Einstein Condensates (BEC's) and cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (cQED). Using a generic Low-Noise Amplifier (LNA) architecture for a GaAs enhancement mode High-Electron Mobility FET device, our design has especially been devised for scientific applications where ultra-low-noise amplification systems are sought to amplify and detect weak RF signals under various conditions and environments, including cryogenic temperatures, with the least possible noise susceptibility. The amplifier offers a 16 dB gain and a 0.8 dB noise figure at 2.5 GHz, while operating at room temperature, which can improve significantly at low temperatures. Both dc and RF outputs are provided by the amplifier to integrate it in a closed-loop or continuous-wave spectroscopy system or connect it to a variety of instruments, a factor which is lacking in commercial LNA devices. Following the amplification stage, the RF signal detection is carried out with the help of a post-amplifier and detection system based upon a set of Zero-Bias Schottky Barrier Diodes (ZBD's) and a high-precision ultra-low noise jFET operational amplifier. The scheme offers unique benefits of sensitive detection and very-low noise amplification for measuring extremely weak on-resonance signals with substantial low-noise response and excellent stability while eliminating complicated and expensive heterodyne schemes. The LNA stage is fully capable to be a part of low-temperature experiments while being operated in cryogenic conditions down to about 500 mK....
摘要:The broken rhythm of the heart activity of a person can lead to fatal consequences if it is not detected at an early stage. The article described a device for counting and indicating the number of violations of rhythm of cardiac activity. The device is intended for home use and does not require medical knowledge. If the patient will notice a trend towards the increasing number of arrhythmias, he must seek for cardiology advice....
摘要:In this paper, we present the R & D activity on a new GEM-based Time Projection Chamber (GEM-TPC) detector for the inner region of the AMADEUS experiment, which is aiming to perform measurements of low-energy negative kaon interactions in nuclei at the DAΦNE e+ e- collider at LNF-INFN. A novel idea of using a GEM-TPC as a low mass target and detector at the same time comes motivated by the need of studying the low energy interactions of K- with nuclei in a complete way, tracking and identifying all of the produced particles. Even more, what makes the experimental proposal revolutionary is the possibility of using different gaseous targets without any other substantial intervention on the experimental setup, making it a flexible multipurpose device. This new detection technique applied to the nuclear physics requires the use of low-radiation length materials and very pure light gases such as Hydrogen, Deuterium, Helium-3, Helium-4, etc. In order to evaluate the GEM-TPC performances, a 10 × 10 cm2 prototype with a drift gap of 15 cm has been realized. The detector was tested at the πM1 beam facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) with low momentum pions and protons. Detection efficiency and spatial resolution, as a function of gas mixture, gas gain and ionazing particle, are reported and discussed....
摘要:A versatile Hall magnetometer has been developed, manufactured, calibrated, and turned operational for measurements of the magnetic properties of bulk materials and magnetic micro- and nanoparticles. The magnetometer was constructed from the combination of various equipments, which was usually available in most laboratories, such as a Hall effect sensor, an electromagnet, a current source, and a linear actuator. The achieved sensitivity to the magnetic moment was approximately 10-8 Am2. The results were compared to measurements performed with commercial vibrating-sample magnetometers and superconductor quantum interference devices (SQUID) and showed errors of around 1.7% and a standard deviation of 1.2% in relation to measures themselves. The constructed Hall magnetometer records a magnetic hysteresis loop of up to 1.2 T at room temperature. This magnetometer is cost-effective, versatile, and suitable for research....
摘要:Gamma-ray spectrometry is a very powerful tool for radioactivity measurements. The gamma-ray spectrometer laboratory in Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria is accredited to perform measurements of radioactive content of samples collected from the environment, food chain or industrial products with the aid of a high resolution HPGe detector. For accurate gamma-ray spectrometry, certain measurements were considered; the efficiency of the detector was performed experimentally against energies within the range of 59.50 keV (241Am) to 2204.50 keV (226Ra) for the respective geometries of 1 - 6 cm. The sustained solid angle relations with respect to the inverse square of sample geometries from 1 - 6 cm were evaluated. Another main point of this work was focused on the efficiency at geometry of 5 cm with respect to the three selected energies: 661.60 keV (137Cs), 1173.2 keV (60Co) and 1332 keV (60Co) for the main axis, ten degree off main axis, forty five degree off main axis and ninety degree off the detector main axis. In order to verify optimum geometries in our laboratory for both short lived and long lived radionuclides analyses, the evaluation of efficiencies for the respective energies: 1173.2 keV (60Co), 1332.5 keV (60Co), 1764 keV (226Ra) and 2294 keV (226Ra) were plotted against geometries of 1 to 6 cm from the detector end cap along the main axis....
摘要:Recent years, we have seen the development of many fields of gas detectors. The MICROMEGAS (Micro-Mesh Gas Structure) appeared as the very promising detector. It is a major family of position detectors in High Energy Physics. This work is done in normal (NTP) based gas mixtures: neon are noble gas and isobutane and DME (dimethyl-ether) as moderators gas (quenchers), using 55Fe as a radiation source (X-ray 5.9 keV). To address the modeling of MICROMEGAS detector, a descriptive model of different physical and geometrical phenomena MICROMEGAS was established by developing a simulation program to spreading the detector response. After, an analytical calculation of the potential and the electric field distributions has been presented briefly, to better estimate electrical and geometric configuration. Finally, simulation results of electrical signals based on gas mixtures (Neon-isobutane, Neon-DME) produced by MICROMEGAS were presented and analyzed in order to improve the MICROMEGAS performance (spatial (12 μm) and temporal (0.7 ns) resolutions)....
摘要:This article examined in detail microwave radiometer functioning algorithm with synchronously using of the two types of pulse modulation: amplitude pulse modulation and pulse-width modulation. This allows a zero-radiometer measurement method to realize when the fluctuation effect of the receiver gain and the influence of its own noise changes are minimized. A zero balance automatically maintains in radiometer. The antenna signal is indirectly determined through the signal duration that controls the pulse-width modulation. An analytical expression of the fluctuation sensitivity was obtained in a general form. From its analysis gain in sensitivity, conditions were defined by the optimizing of the radiometer input knot's construction. Three modifications of the radiometer input knot were researched. Fluctuation sensitivity at different measurement range was determined for modification of the radiometer input knot....
摘要:Recent years, we have seen the development of many fields of gas detectors. The MICROMEGAS (Micro-Mesh Gas Structure) appeared as the very promising detector. It is a major family of position detectors in High Energy Physics. This work is done in normal (NTP) based gas mixtures: neon are noble gas and isobutane and DME (dimethyl-ether) as moderators gas (quenchers), using ~(55)Fe as a radiation source (X-ray 5.9 keV). To address the modeling of MICROMEGAS detector, a descriptive model of different physical and geometrical phenomena MICROMEGAS was established by developing a simulation program to spreading the detector response. After, an analytical calculation of the potential and the electric field distributions has been presented briefly, to better estimate electrical and geometric configuration. Finally, simulation results of electrical signals based on gas mixtures (Neon-isobutane, Neon-DME) produced by MICROMEGAS were presented and analyzed in order to improve the MICROMEGAS performance (spatial (12 μm) and temporal (0.7 ns) resolutions)....
摘要:A versatile Hall magnetometer has been developed, manufactured, calibrated, and turned operational for measurements of the magnetic properties of bulk materials and magnetic micro- and nanoparticles. The magnetometer was constructed from the combination of various equipments, which was usually available in most laboratories, such as a Hall effect sensor, an electromagnet, a current source, and a linear actuator. The achieved sensitivity to the magnetic moment was approximately 10~(-8) Am~2. The results were compared to measurements performed with commercial vibrating-sample magnetometers and superconductor quantum interference devices (SQUID) and showed errors of around 1.7% and a standard deviation of 1.2% in relation to measures themselves. The constructed Hall magnetometer records a magnetic hysteresis loop of up to 1.2 T at room temperature. This magnetometer is cost-effective, versatile, and suitable for research....
摘要:Gamma-ray spectrometry is a very powerful tool for radioactivity measurements. The gamma-ray spectrometer laboratory in Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria is accredited to perform measurements of radioactive content of samples collected from the environment, food chain or industrial products with the aid of a high resolution HPGe detector. For accurate gamma-ray spectrometry, certain measurements were considered; the efficiency of the detector was performed experimentally against energies within the range of 59.50 keV (~241Am) to 2204.50 keV (~226Ra) for the respective geometries of 1 - 6 cm. The sustained solid angle relations with respect to the inverse square of sample geometries from 1-6 cm were evaluated. Another main point of this work was focused on the efficiency at geometry of 5 cm with respect to the three selected energies: 661.60 keV (~137Cs), 1173.2 keV (~60Co) and 1332 keV (~60Co) for the main axis, ten degree off main axis, forty five degree off main axis and ninety degree off the detector main axis. In order to verify optimum geometries in our laboratory for both short lived and long lived radionuclides analyses, the evaluation of efficiencies for the respective energies: 1173.2 keV (~60Co), 1332.5 keV (~60Co), 1764 keV (~226Ra) and 2294 keV (~226Ra) were plotted against geometries of 1 to 6 cm from the detector end cap along the main axis....
摘要:This article examined in detail microwave radiometer functioning algorithm with synchronously using of the two types of pulse modulation: amplitude pulse modulation and pulse-width modulation. This allows a zero-radiometer measurement method to realize when the fluctuation effect of the receiver gain and the influence of its own noise changes are minimized. A zero balance automatically maintains in radiometer. The antenna signal is indirectly determined through the signal duration that controls the pulse-width modulation. An analytical expression of the fluctuation sensitivity was obtained in a general form. From its analysis gain in sensitivity, conditions were defined by the optimizing of the radiometer input knot's construction. Three modifications of the radiometer input knot were researched. Fluctuation sensitivity at different measurement range was determined for modification of the radiometer input knot....
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