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摘要:This article aims to analyze cities located in the high mountain ecosystems formed by the landscape of Andenes or sustainable infrastructure of terraces located in the Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andean highlands of central South America. The selected case studies have in common the use of land for settlement purposes, and the fact that they pursue both urban and rural infrastructure sustainability approaches. Theoretical and empirical methods were used such as the historical-logical method, the inductive-deductive method, observation in situ and reviews of documents and maps. It is concluded that the anthropic interventions and the management and monitoring plans of each site allow for the conservation of their natural resources and of the landscape of Andenes, the improvement of the population’s quality of life, the control of structural risk to prevent erosion of the mountains where they are constructed as well as the preservation of the site’s globally significant cultural heritage (as recognised by UNESCO). Current trends in the sustainable use of cultural and natural resources of the heritage involve the conservation of terraced landscapes. Without their preservation, management or exploitation as a tourist resource cannot be carried out....
摘要:Many timber producing countries generate more than 2 million m3 of sawdust annually. In developing countries, sawdust is often disposed of by open dumping, open burning, or dumping in landfills. This poses huge environmental challenges related to air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and destruction of plant and aquatic life. Findings from this review article reveal that sawdust can be used to make sawdust construction composites with good modulus of elasticity, water absorption and strength characteristics that satisfy international specifications. These composites include particleboards, sawdust concrete blocks or bricks and sawdust concrete. The article concludes that partially replacing 5% to 17% of sand with sawdust, or replacing cement with sawdust ash in proportions of 5% to 15% in concrete mixes can produce structural concrete with compressive strengths greater than 20 MPa. Partially replacing 10% to 30% of sand used in the manufacture blocks and bricks with sawdust can also produce sawdust bricks and blocks with compressive strengths greater than 3 MPa. Sawdust composites are also attractive for their low thermal conductivity, high sound absorption and good sound insulation characteristics. These findings indicate that increased utilisation of sawdust composites in construction will mitigate against potential sawdust environmental pollution, conserve energy and reduce disposal costs....
摘要:The study was carried out exclusively in Ghana to explore the approaches employed by consultants in risk assessment at the design phase of projects in Ghana. One hundred and fourteen (114) consultants were selected out of a population of one hundred and eighty six (186) from three main professional associations in Ghana made up of the Ghana Institute of Architects, Ghana Institution of Engineers and the Ghana Institution of Surveyors (Quantity Surveying Division) practicing in Ghana for the study. Both primary and secondary data were collected. A descriptive survey was also used to observe and describe the presence, frequency or absence of characteristics of a phenomenon as it naturally occurred, in order to gain additional information. A questionnaire was also designed to collect data from the architects, engineers and quantity surveyors. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Scientists (SPSS) 17.0. Descriptive and inferential statistics, such as frequency tables, percentages and cross tabulations were used in the data analysis and summaries. Simple tests of associations were undertaken by using Chi square and Cramer’s V statistics to compare relationships between variables. Again, relative importance index was also used to analyze some of the data by computing to deduce their rankings. The relative importance index was used to analyze some of the data by computing to deduce their rankings. The research revealed that majority of consultants had an average knowledge of risk management. Based on the findings it was recommended that consultants undergo advanced training in risk assessment. It was therefore suggested that consultancy firms should develop a set of laid down procedures for consultants to use in risk assessment in order that the use of intuition employed by majority is lessened. The challenges observed in risk assessment and the remedial steps suggested curtailing the detrimental effects of risks would be of wide importance to many developing economies....
摘要:National Parks not only undertake the basic functions of protecting natural ecological environment, but also play a variety of functions such as the cultivation, scientific research, environmental education, natural recreation, etc. China’s National Park career entered a new chapter after the third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. It is urgent to make specific and operable research as a reference in practice. This paper takes the national parks of the US as the research object to analyze the specific methods and planning process based on the public engagement mechanism, thus improve the planning and management of national parks in China....
摘要:Occupational health and safety continues to be a major component of the built environment. The study investigates the effectiveness of occupational health and safety laws and regulations in the construction industry in Ghana and identifies the influencing factors. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among 49 stakeholders from four relevant groups—regulatory institutions, consultants, contractors, artisans and labourers. The findings of the study suggest that the existing occupational health and safety legal and regulatory framework is barely effective. Stakeholders were aware of the existence of some laws and regulations but mostly could not identify the specific laws and their relevant contents. Consequently, compliance is found to be irregular. The key recurring factors affecting effectiveness of occupational health and safety laws and regulations include: negligence and lack of priority for occupational health and safety, lack of training, lack of funds for occupational health and safety, lack of capacity of regulatory and supervisory institutions, and lack of occupational health and safety education within construction firms. The findings of the study are foundational in strategic interventions aimed at improving compliance with occupational health and safety laws and regulations in the construction industry of Ghana....
摘要:In this paper, the author takes the ancient dwellings in Liu Jiaqiao Village as an example to excavate its protection value. Meanwhile, the changing reasons of the dwellings are analyzed. Based on the analysis, the strategies dealing with the phenomenon are proposed from the perspective of protection and inher-itance....
摘要:Urban populations today are exposed to high levels of noise, which may cause discomfort and lead to health problems. Most of these noises are traffic-generated; therefore, this study focuses on evaluating the soundscapes of urban open spaces to determine its importance for the health of the citizen, since such spaces can function as noise attenuators. The methodology of this study involved a literature review, computer simulations and interviews with users of the aforementioned open spaces. The case study was conducted in an urban area in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The results indicate that, in the period of this study, traffic noise dissipated through open spaces but noise levels still exceeded the maximum allowable levels established by regulations. Nevertheless, the population proved to be largely unaware of the noise. It should be pointed out that the areas under study are used predominantly as recreational spaces for health and wellbeing activities. The findings of this study may serve to underpin urban planning policies that encourage the inclusion of open spaces, especially in areas of high urban density where the transport system consists of motor vehicles, in order to help control urban noise....
摘要:This study investigated the practice and perceptions on waste management and the feasibility of establishing a site waste management plan in the Zambian Construction Industry (ZCI). In this research, Lusaka and the Copperbelt provinces were selected as study areas to represent the construction industry in Zambia. This was because the largest volume of construction work in the country is mainly concentrated in these two provinces. The research targeted contractors from Grades 1 to 3 as categorised and registered by the Zambian National Council for Construction (NCC). Consultancy firms and government institutions were also included in the target population as regulators. Data for this study were obtained through questionnaires, interviews and site surveys. The results from this research indicated that disposal was the most common method of waste management in the Zambian Construction industry as indicated by the highest ranking score with a mean index of 0.923. The research concluded that the construction industry in Zambia has poor practice of waste management through waste disposal which is not environmentally friendly. The results further indicated that it is feasible to adopt a Site Waste Management Plan in the Zambian Construction industry based on the respondents' willingness mean score of 0.94 from all the categories. Finally, the research confirmed that a Site Waste Management Plan can be an effective tool to address waste management challenges in the Zambian Construction Industry based on the literature review and willingness measured from research respondents....
摘要:Contractors working with the Public sector encounter numerous challenges in financing projects in Ghana. The challenges which have persisted over the years are both financial and managerial. This paper seeks to ascertain the extent to which contractors' challenges in acquiring funds to execute public sector projects have been solved. The study involved both qualitative and quantitative methods to ascertain the various strategies the contractors go through to obtain public sector projects focusing on the challenges associated with the project execution. The study revealed that delayed payments and inadequate cash flow on the part of government, lack of credit worthiness and inadequate collateral security from contractors are key determinants to challenges associated with financing public sector projects in Ghana. This paper recommends the establishment of a Construction Development Authority (CDA), within the Ministry of Works and Housing to develop financial plans, policies and laws for this important sector of the economy....
摘要:Based on the night light data, urban area data, and economic data of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration from 2009 to 2015, we use spatial correlation dimension, spatial self-correlation analysis and weighted standard deviation ellipse to identify the general characteristics and dynamic evolution characteristics of urban spatial pattern and economic disparity pattern. The research results prove that: between 2009 and 2013, Wuhan Urban Agglomeration expanded gradually from northwest to southeast and presented the dynamic evolution features of “along the river and the road”. The spatial structure is obvious, forming the pattern of “core-periphery”. The development of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration has obvious imbalance in economic geography space, presenting the development tendency of “One prominent, stronger in the west and weaker in the east”. The contract within Wuhan Urban Agglomeration is gradually decreased. Wuhan city and its surrounding areas have stronger economic growth strength as well as the cities along The Yangtze River. However, the relative development rate of Wuhan city area is still far higher than other cities and counties....
摘要:An understanding of the influence of contractor monitoring on performance of road infrastructural projects in Uganda provided an impetus for this study. The objectives of the study were to: assess the relationship between contractors monitoring and performance of national road infrastructure projects and the relationship between contractor monitoring components and performance of national road infrastructure projects in Uganda. Purposive sampling was employed in selecting the procurement professionals, engineers and simple random sampling was adopted in selecting private consultants, members of parliament and respondents from the civil society organizations. Data for this study were collected using a closed ended questionnaire and interviews. Some of the major finding from this study include: weak procurement rules which lead to awarding road projects to incompetent contractors; contractor monitoring being handled by unqualified, incompetent and inexperienced professionals; lack of contractors and contract supervisors appraisal system; delay of contractors payments which affects timelines in services delivery; lack of a strong internal project monitoring and evaluation mechanism at the Uganda National Roads Agency (UNRA). The research therefore recommends the establishment of an Independent Public Infrastructure Development and Monitoring Unit by government and adoption of systems that appraise both contractors and contract supervisors with clear disciplinary actions for unsatisfactory performance by the UNRA....
摘要:The new guidelines of the Catholic Church are in line with the guidelines adopted by Protestant churches since the Reformation, unifying appreciation for the liturgical practices of preaching and congregational singing. These guidelines require that the room, in this case the church, provides appropriate acoustic characteristics, which can be characterized by acoustic descriptors such as Reverberation Time (RT), Clarity (C80) and Definition (D50). In this article, we analyzed the acoustic quality of a protestant church whose design tried to follow these guidelines. Our findings revealed the poor quality of the acoustic environment in terms of both speech intelligibility and music. These findings emphasized the need to adopt not only Reverberation Time but also other acoustic descriptors such as Clarity and Definition in church design....
摘要:Four theoretically-deduced hypotheses about geographical and temporal variations in exterior housing quality within a neighbourhood are summarized as a renovation- or deterioration-of-self effect, a contagion-down-the-street effect, a distance-from-riverbank effect, and a distance-from core effect. These hypotheses are tested with data for the exterior conditions of hundreds of single- detached (-like) houses that have been individually surveyed twice with the same instrument in four older-urban neighbourhoods in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Each surveyed house's rated conditions of 12 exterior attributes are in particular utilized to calculate its overall exterior quality as a percentage above or below normal. Findings are that houses' exteriors had average “normal” weathered conditions for Canada. Even so, overall exterior housing qualities in three neighbourhoods exemplified a hypothesized deterioration-of-self effect and proximity-to-core effect, as they had especially declined from their original survey to their resurvey for houses located near to a core such as downtown or a casino. In addition, the hypothesized distance-from-riverbank effect was observed in one neighbourhood where overall exterior housing quality linearly deteriorated with farther distance from a riverbank. Finally, overall exterior housing qualities had no observable contagion-down-the-street effect, and so, residents were not reacting positively or negatively to their neighbours' maintenance and improvement of their homes' exteriors. The practical implications of the study's findings are discussed in the conclusion....
摘要:The aim of this study is to apply the methodology for assessment of environmental impact whether of a physicochemical nature and on the biodiversity and ecosystems, or whether sociocultural and economic aspects of the historic towns with tourism interest that are assessed. The automated method of the RIAM software is used which requires a baseline study of the environment of different towns to be prepared. In addition, the analysis of the social perception on tourism of the local people from the course work of students at the UIDE shall be applied. The conclusions of the case studies undertaken allow for strategic proposals and recommendations to be prepared so that they can be incorporated into the management plans for tourism in the historic towns with heritage value....
摘要:The idea behind this work is developing an adaptive method for the environmental assessment of buildings, to configure different versions according to the variables affecting them (spatial, temporal and associated with building characteristics) to suit different evaluated projects. This method may be applied using an electronic tool, which is in a development stage. Amending different assessment versions of the adaptive method is done by including the variables effect, according to set of steps, such as modifying the formulation of the assessment items, adjusting their estimation weights, and amending their achievement evaluation levels and their returned scores. When using the adaptive method, the assessment result of a building using a certain version differs from the results using other versions, even in the same country, so configuring an appropriate version due to the variables affecting the assessment helps getting more accurate results than the ones currently provided. The main goal of that research is to introduce the adaptive method that is proposed to ensure a fairer assessment results from the perspective of Green Architecture, and allow a more credible and accuracy of results comparison according to the environmental performance of buildings. The researcher analyzed the different main features she used in developing the adaptive method, the Comparative aspects between it and the current assessment methods, and the expected reached advantages from its usage. The paper arrived to the importance of adapting the environmental assessment of buildings according to the different affecting variables, and recommended developing the adaptive method and its tool to the stage of application to benefit its advantages....
摘要:Bifacial photovoltaic (PV) modules offer potentially enhanced power output over conventional modules due to their reported ability to harvest reflected radiation, increasing output up to an additional 30%. However, this enhancement has yet to be confirmed in the literature. This paper reports on a study comparing the power output of two nominally identical 700 W photovoltaic arrays utilizing equivalent system components and data logging equipment with varying configurations of reflecting geometries and materials. This study was undertaken at the Appalachian State University Solar Research Laboratory in Boone, NC, which houses two Class 1 pyranometers and pyrheliometer. PV power was reported under well-quantified irradiance conditions, including direct beam fraction. Six trials over six months (November-April) with varying reflective materials and geometries revealed that different reflecting materials did not significantly change power output. Mounting an array at 0 style="white-space:normal;">° did adversely affect power output compared to the array at a 36° angle relative to horizontal using the same reflective material. Additional studies with varied materials, panel locations and geometries different from those tested may improve the power output....
摘要:Helal El-Beah mosque in Egypt was built from many different materials as sandstone, bricks and marble. These building materials were in a bad condition due to many degradation factors, mainly ground water and salt weathering, so many deterioration phenomena were appeared as horizontal and vertical cracks, salts, loss of the Islamic decorations in the fa?ade and mihrab (Prayer niche), detachment of the plaster, biological colonization and featured dark of the stone surface. Prior to the conservation intervention, the building materials were characterized to identify their components. Scientific conservation treatment was carried out for the long-term conservation of the mosque. Conservation operations at the mosque included: repairing and roof insulation, wet and dry cleaning, joining of cracked parts and surface consolidating, replacement of the Portland cement plaster with lime plaster, re-cladding the lower part of the interior brick walls with sandstone tiles, replacement and completion of the stone blocks....
摘要:In China, rural residential environment under the poor construction measures has not been satisfactory due to the backward infrastructure of countryside and the lacking of professional planning, which will result in considerable amount of energy consumption in the future. The economy of rural residences in the hot summer and cold winter region of China is relative developed, but the indoor thermal environmental quality is not so good. In this paper, the design strategies directed by passive design ideas for a small experimental rural residential building located in Hangzhou city was introduced and researched in response to hot summer and cold winter climate. Through modeling solution undertaken by Ecotect software, the building performance was simulated and analyzed for the optimization of design factors, such as shape, roof angle, insulation system, shading devices, as well as day-lighting system. Based on the above study, a set of appropriate energy-saving technologies were provided for improving the new rural residences construction in Hangzhou, which should also be recommended to other projects constructed in the same climate region....
摘要:Recently, plant construction throughout the world, including nuclear power plant construction, has grown significantly. The scale of Korea's nuclear power plant construction in particular, has increased gradually since it won a contract for a nuclear power plant construction project in the United Arab Emirates in 2009. However, time and monetary resources have been lost in some nuclear power plant construction sites due to lack of risk management ability. The need to prevent losses at nuclear power plant construction sites has become more urgent because it demands professional skills and large-scale resources. Therefore, in this study, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) were applied in order to make comparisons between decision-making methods, to assess the potential risks at nuclear power plant construction sites. To suggest the appropriate choice between two decision-making methods, a survey was carried out. From the results, the importance and the priority of 24 risk factors, classified by process, cost, safety, and quality, were analyzed. The FAHP was identified as a suitable method for risk assessment of nuclear power plant construction, compared with risk assessment using the AHP. These risk factors will be able to serve as baseline data for risk management in nuclear power plant construction projects....
摘要:Some building components are responsible for achieving more than one environmental function, these functions are usually of different requirements that can never be done by the same actions, and they are usually connected to changeable internal and external environment characteristics that vary among them. Minimizing the conflict of achieving the different environmental functions is an important challenge for all designers. Achieving a continuous thermal and optical comfort in an internal building space using the same window is an example of this challenge, as they have different requirements that may be sometimes contrary. It should be notable that there are a lot of recent technologies that may be used to find solutions for such a conflict. The Environmental Assessment Methods of Buildings appeared to set the principles of the optimum relation between buildings and their environment, they also could be used to encourage designers to reach the best environmental relations, and award them by main or additional assessment points. The research paper proposes to use the Environmental Assessment Methods of Buildings to assess the building ability of minimizing its environmental functions achievement conflict. This proposal depends on determining the inconsistency assessment items that depend on common building components to be achieved, and then determining the time periods that these items are achieved together within, to indicate the time periods without conflicting. Thus, the paper aims to raise the building environmental value in the assessment when the designer succeeds to minimize the expected conflict of the building environmental functions....
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