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摘要:Crude enzyme extracts were prepared from leaves and stems of precatorius<="" i=""> Linn. (Fabaceae) from Cameroon under optimized conditions. Proteolytic enzymes were precipitated with ammonium sulfate at 35% (w/v) saturation and assayed for enzyme activity. The effects of temperature, pH, incubation time and substrate specificity were studied. SDS-PAGE was used to determine molecular weight of precipitated protease. Results indicated that proteolytic activity of crude extract was 35.20 U/ml compared to 51.03 U/ml of partial purified extract. The optimum enzyme activity was found to be at 40°C, while 50% of activity was maintained at 60°C after 60 min incubation. Partial purified crude extract exhibited two optimum pH (2.75 and 9.0). The highest enzyme activity towards Bovine Serum Albumine (25.9 U/ml) was noted. SDS-PAGE gels exhibited molecular weight between 40 - 60 KDa. This result confirms that partial purified extract of A. precatorius contains proteases and could be a promising source for proteolytic enzyme extraction....
摘要:Lipases have important applications in biotechnological processes, motivating us to produce, purify, immobilize and perform a biochemical characterization of the lipase from Rhizomucor pusillus. The fungus was cultivated by solid state fermentation producing lipolytic activity of about 0.5 U/mL(4U/g). A partial purification by gel filtration chromatography in Se-phacryl S-100 allowed obtaining a yield of about 85% and a purification factor of 5.7. Our results revealed that the purified enzyme is very stable with some significant differences in its properties when compared to crude extract. The crude enzyme extract has an optimum pH and temperature of 7.5 ° C and 40 ° C, respectively. After purification, a shift of the optimum pH from 7 to 8 was observed, as well as a rise in optimumtemperature to 60 ° C and an increase in stability. The enzyme was immobilized on CNBr-Agarose and Octyl-Agarose supports, having the highest immobilization yield of 94% in the second resin. The major advantage of immobilization in hydrophobic media such as Octyl is in its hyper activation, which in this case was over 200%, a very interesting finding. Another advantage of this type of immobilization is the possibility of using the derivatives in biotechnological applications, such as in oil enriched with omega-3 as the results obtained in this study display the hydrolysis of 40% EPA and 7% DHA from sardine oil, promising results compared to the literature....
摘要: style="font-family:;" arial?,?sans-serif?;font-size:10pt;?="">To ascertain the molecular basis of Ca2+-mediated activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), we determined the accessibility of tryptophan residues to externally added acrylamide as quencher in the absence and presence of the metal ion. The steady-state and time resolved fluorescence data revealed that MMP-9 possesses two classes of tryptophan residues, “exposed” and “buried” which are quenched by the collisional rate constants (kq) of 3.2′ style="font-family:;" arial?,?sans-serif?;font-size:10pt;?=""> 109M-1.s-1 and 7.5′ style="font-family:;" arial?,?sans-serif?;font-size:10pt;?=""> 108M-1.s-1, respectively. These values are impaired by approximately two and three-fold, respectively, in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+. The Stern-Volmer constants (Ksv values) predicted from the time resolved fluorescence data (in the absence of Ca2+ ) satisfied the dynamic quenching model of the enzyme's tryptophan residues. This was not the case in the presence of Ca2+ ; the steady-state acrylamide quenching data could only be explained by a combination of “dynamic” and “static” quenching models. A cumulative account of these data led to the suggestion that the binding of Ca2+ modulated the tertiary structure of the protein by decreasing the dynamic flexibility of the enzyme, which is manifested in further structuring of the enzyme's active site pocket toward facilitating catalysis. Arguments are presented that the binding of Ca2+ at distal sites “dynamically” communicates with the /> active site residues of MMP-9 during catalysis. /> />...
摘要:Previous studies showed that rabbit muscle phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1) activity losses due to dilution, due to inhibition by ascorbate, and due to some lithium salts were prevented by rabbit muscle aldolase. Chicken PFK-1 and fish PFK-1 interacted with ascorbate and were inhibited, consistent with a previously proposed function that ascorbate facilitates glycogen in resting muscle by inhibiting glycolysis. This report shows that a plant enzyme, spinach aldolase, has the same ability to prevent rabbit muscle PFK-1 activity loses as rabbit muscle aldolase and in some instances it was a better protector from activity losses than rabbit aldolase. Spinach aldolase also protected chicken and fish PFK-1s from inhibitions by ascorbate and from activity losses due to dilution. Prevention of losses PFK-1 activities from animal species by a plant protein, spinach aldolase, suggests an evolutionary conservative relationship between PFK-1s and aldolases....
摘要:This work examines the influence of Cl- (2.5 - 125 mM) and HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- (2 - 30 mM) on the Cl-/HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- - ATPase complex of the neuronal membrane and this enzyme is a Cl--pump that is coupled to GABAA receptors. The greatest (44%) activating effect on the enzyme is found with HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- (20 - 30 mM), while the maximum activity occurs in the presence of a ratio of ~25 mM HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- /~5mM Cl-. Blockers of the GABAA receptor, namely bicuculline (10 - 50 μM) and picrotoxin (50 - 100 μM), inhibit this anion activation, whereas the HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- -ATPase activity is not sensitive to these ligands. Autoradiographic analysis of the spectrum of the partially purified enzyme phosphorylated with -32P]ATP allowed us to distinguish three major 32P-labeled protein whose molecular weight are about 57, 53, and 48 kDa. In the presence of 5 mM Cl-/25mM HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- and 100 μM picrotoxin, the intensity of the phosphorylation of bands significantly decreased, thereby confirming the assumption about coupled of binding sites for anions and GABAA-ergic ligands. It was suggested scheme of Cl--transport through the plasma membrane by utilizing neuronal Cl-/ -HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- ATPase in the low (5 mM) Cl- and high (25 mM) HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- concentrations. The data demonstrated for the first time that the GABAA-coupled Cl-/ HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- -ATPase from rat brain neuronal membranes is maximally activated at a Cl-/HCO3 style="margin-left:-5px;">- ratio of 1:5 and it remains stable at high concentrations of substrate and buffer....
摘要:Letter to Advances in Enzyme Research...
摘要:Intracellular iron levels and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hydroperoxidase (HP) are regulated in Gram-negative bacteria by the iron(II)-activated ferric uptake regula- tor (Fur). We have previously observed that the expression of SOD in exponential phase Escherichia coli is dependent upon the redox state of iron in media, consistent with the ferrous specificity of Fur regulation (Bertrand et al., Med. Hypotheses 78: 130 - 133, 2012). Through the non-denaturing electrophoretic technique we have determined the Escherichia coli expression profiles of SOD and HP in response to iron challenge throughout lag, logarithmic, and stationary phases of replication. Lag phase SOD presented an unusual expression profile such that SOD expression was unresponsive to iron challenge, analogous to observations of mutant strains lacking Fur and of E. coli incubated in iron-deplete media. Challenging Escherichia coli with iron during logarithmic phase revealed that length of exposure to oxidants is unlikely to be the cause of SOD unresponsiveness in lag phase. HP activity was up-regulated two- or three-fold throughout all growth phases in response to iron challenge, but did not present redox- or growth phase-specific outcomes in a manner analogous to SOD. We hypothesize that low Fur levels during lag phase are responsible for unresponsive SOD....
摘要:Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS) is a bi-functional glycosyltransferase, containing a β1,3-glucuronyltransferase and β1,4-N-acetylglucosaminetransferase domain. PmHAS catalyzes the elongation of hyaluronan (HA) through the sequential addition of single monosaccharides to the non-reducing end of the hyaluronan chain. Research is focused on the relation between the length of the HA oligosaccharide and the single-step elongation kinetics from HA4 up to HA9. It was found that the turnover number kcat increased with length to maximum values of 11 and 14 s-1 for NAc- and UA-transfer, respectively. Interestingly, the specificity constant kcat/KM increased with polymer length from HA5 to HA7 to a value of 44 mM-1s-1, indicating an oligosaccharide binding site with increasing specificity towards a heptasaccharide at the UA domain. The value of kcat/KM remained moderately constant around 8 mM-1s-1 for HA4, HA6, and HA8, indicating a binding site with significantly lower binding specificity at the NAc domain than at the UA domain. These findings are further corroborated by a structural homology model of PmHAS, revealing two distinct sites for binding of oligosaccharides of different sizes, one in each transferase domain. Structural alignment studies between PmHAS and glycosyltransferases of the GT-A fold showed significant similarity in the binding of the UDP-sugars and the orientation of the acceptor substrate. These similarities in substrate orientation in the active site and in essential amino acid residues involved in substrate binding were utilized to localize the two HA oligosaccharide binding sites....
摘要:This study explored the utility of flours of rubber seed, coconut and groundnut kernels, and de-oiled cakes of coconut and groundnut as solid substrate for the production of lipase by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BUP2 (MTCC No. 5924), a novel bacterium reported from the rumen of Malabari goat. Various proportions (10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50%) of flours or cakes were prepared (w/v) with BUP medium (pH 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8), and incubated at different temperature (25 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C, 28 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C, 30 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C or 32 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C) for 24 to 96 h. The samples were assayed for lipase activity at 24 h intervals. The rubber seed flour (20%)-BUP medium supported the maximum lipase production (871 U/gds) at 48h incubation (pH 6, 28 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C), followed by ground nut flour (398 U/gds), while ground nut cake supported the least lipase production (244 U/gds). From this, it is evident that the cheaply available rubber seed is an efficient substrate for the production of lipase, irrespective of its known demerit that it contains the limarin, a toxin; in fact, we could not detect limarin in the fermented matter. Thus, the utility of rubber seed for the production of a costly enzyme is reported from a novel rumen bacterium, which would be advantageous for rubber farmers....
摘要:Enzymatic activities are important to be quantified in products as enzymatic cleaners, which are used in medical and surgical devices reprocessing. Enzymatic activities are critical for the proper chemical cleaning that intends to remove solid organic dirt from inaccessible sites. The most important enzyme for this purpose is the protease, which is able to dissolve the main dirt attached to medical and surgical instruments. In this context, this study contributes to the development of a new proteolytic activity quantification method and its validation. The methodology is based on colorimetry and uses a UV-Vis spectrophotometer to measure the substrate hydrolysis by the blue color intensity, employing Protazyme AK tablets as substrate....
摘要:Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a molybdoflavoprotein mainly involved in purine catabolism. It exists in two forms, the oxidase (XO) and dehydrogenase (XDH) which are inter-convertible within mammalian cells. Although various researchers have reported the extraction of mammalian XOR, no extractions have yet been carried out in Malta and subsequently no characterizations are available. In this study, XOR was successfully purified from bovine, caprine and ovine milk through a multistep purification process involving both chemical and chromatographic techniques. The molecular weights of the native enzyme were found to be 295 kDa, 281 kDa and 275 kDa, representing the bovine, caprine and ovine XOR respectively. Western blot showed XOR to be represented on SDS-PAGE by a minimum of three major bands having molecular weights of 151 kDa, 131 kDa and 85 kDa. While all samples showed activity on native PAGE, spectrophotometric assays revealed the bovine XOR to be the most active. Surprisingly, the addition of NAD+ to the assay mixture inhibited enzyme activity of the bovine and caprine XOR whereas the ovine XOR doubled its activity in response to NAD+. The latter also showed a lower binding affinity to heparin. Following incubation with trypsin, XOR was irreversibly converted to its oxidase form in all samples as reflected by the observed increase in XO activity....
摘要:Destrin, also called actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), exists in resting parotid tissue as phosphorylated (inactive) and dephosphorylated (active) forms, and β-adrenergic stimulation of this tissue induces dephosphorylation of destrin. It is suggested that destrin dephosphorylation is involved in cortical F-actin disruption observed in parallel with β-agonist-induced amylase secretion. At present, the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanism of destrin in parotid tissue is not known. We previously detected, in a crude rat parotid extract, a constitutively active protein kinase catalyzing phosphorylation of destrin; however, its identification has been hampered by difficulty in its enrichment. The purpose of this study was to explore a simple purification method(s) for this enzyme. To this end, we first developed a high-throughput dot-blot assay for the kinase with an anti-phosphodestrin antibody and then studied its purification by column chromatography on several media. We found that the kinase could be partially purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, phenyl-Sepharose, and hydroxyapatite columns. In each chromatography, however, the kinase could be eluted, at the cost of resolution, only by sharp increases in the elution power of the eluent; gradual increases in the elution power resulted in unacceptably poor recovery. We confirmed that enzymatic properties of the kinase were not basically altered during the purification. Further purification of the kinase was achieved by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which resolved the kinase activity into two bands and separated the activity from most proteins (the kinase activity after PAGE was detected with destrin-coated polyvinylidene difluoride membranes and the anti-phosphodestrin antibody). The two bands seem to constitute the major destrin-phosphorylating activity in the resting rat parotid gland. We here report its partial purification and characterization together with the detection methods....
摘要:Enzyme kinetic parameters have been estimated using MATLAB software via the Wilkinson non-linear regression technique. The MATLAB script file written to implement this technique is short and very straightforward. Several software tools are commercially available for this purpose, with many graphical user interface (GUI) features. A routine use of these packages might offer immediate satisfaction of interactive hands-on experience; but in some cases the researcher might wish to write his/her own code and compare the results for further confirmation. Today MATLAB is in use in almost all the schools and laboratories as a standard software tool. So this paper is aimed at helping enzyme researchers to make use of this powerful software for estimation of parameters. It enables the incorporation of the analytical steps behind parameter estimation in an easy-to-follow manner and furnishes better visualization....
摘要: style="font-family:;" arial?,?sans-serif?;font-size:10pt;?=""> style="font-family:;" tahoma?,?sans-serif?;font-size:9pt;?=""> style="font-family:;" tahoma","sans-serif";font-size:9pt;"="">Proteases due to their wide range of applications in biotechnological processes have been the??focus of intense research for many decades. However, from industrial?application view point most of the available proteases lack desired properties;?therefore, search for better and efficient thermostable alkaline proteases are?always on.?Bacillus pumilus?D-6, isolated from dairy plant soil sample, in the?current study produced protease which showed activity and stability at high?alkaline?p style="font-family:;" arial?,?sans-serif?;font-size:10pt;?="">H (8 - 12) and high?temperatures (70 style="font-family:宋体;font-size:10.5pt;">C- 100C). Enzyme activity remained unfazed even in presence?of inhibitors like Pb2+and Hg2+which are considered?universal inhibitors of enzyme activity. Besides, the organism successfully?utilized crude agriculture based substrates as carbon and nitrogen source and?produced substantial enzyme titre. /> /> />

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摘要:Lipid-producing microalgae are emerging as the leading platform for producing alternative biofuels in response to diminishing petroleum reserves. Optimization of fatty acid production is required for efficient conversion of microalgal fatty acids into usable transportation fuels. Microbial lipases/esterases can be used to enhance fatty acid production because of their efficacy in catalyzing hydrolysis of esters into alcohols and fatty acids while minimizing the potential poisoning of catalysts needed in the biofuel production process. Although studies have extensively focused on lipases/esterases produced by mesophilic organisms, an understanding of lipases/esterases produced by thermophilic, acidic tolerant microbes, such as Metallosphaera sedula, is limited. In this work, the carboxylesterase from Metallosphaera sedula DSM5348 encoded by Msed_1072 was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (λDE3). The purified enzyme either with a hexahistidine (His6)-tag (Msed_1072Nt and Msed_1072Ct) or without the hexahistidine (His6)-tag (Msed_1072) was biochemically characterized using a variety of substrates over a range of temperatures and pH and in the presence of metal ions, organic solvents, and detergents. In this study, the fusion of the protein with a hexahistidine (His6)-tag did not result in a change in substrate specificity, but the findings provide information on which enzyme variant can hydrolyze fatty acid esters in the presence of various chemicals, and this has important implication for their use in industrial processes. It also demonstrates that Metallosphaera sedula Msed_1072 can have application in microalgae-based biofuel production systems....
摘要:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has been purified from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds and subjected to characterization. The enzyme was purified 123.69 fold with a yield of 21.37% by ammonium sulphate fractionation, PEG-4000 precipitation, CM cellulose column chromatography and DEAE cellulose column chromatography. The catalytically active enzyme is a dimer of 113 KDa with a subunit molecular weight of 55 KDa. Thermal inactivation of enzyme follows first order kinetics at 30 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C and 40 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C with half life of 6 and 1.5 min respectively. Km value for glucose-6-phosphate and NADP+ was found to be 2.68 mM and 0.75 mM respectively whereas Vmax value was found to be 0.11 U/mL and 0.13 U/mL respectively. The enzyme shows more affinity towards NADP+ than glucose-6-phosphate. The pKa value was found to be 10.41 indicating that the amino acid residue at active site might be lysine. The enzyme exhibited maximum catalytic activity at pH 8.2. The enzyme was found to be highly thermosensitive with gradual loss of activity above 30 style="font-family:Verdana, Helvetica, Arial;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;">°C temperature....
摘要:Isolating cellulase-secreting microbes followed-by screening their cellulolytic activities has been an essential approach to discover novel and potential cellulases for cellulolytic industrial applications. This study was aimed to explore competitive exoglucanases by screening avicelase activities for 92 fungal strains isolated from environmental airborne-fungal-spore samples. Results showed that an isolated fungal strain numbered 58 exhibited the best avicelase activity of 0.209 U/mL when cultured for six days at pH 5.0 - 5.3 and 25℃ - 27℃, and was lately identified as a yeast strain of Meyerozyma sp. (96% ITS fragment similar with Meyerozyma caribbica, HG970748). Based on amino acid sequences revealed from LC/MS/MS, the target exoglucanase was identical to 1,4-beta-D-glucan cellobiohydrolases and was named Mc-CBHI which had optimal avicelase reaction conditions of pH 5 and 70℃ and could remain fairly stable after 4hr incubation at acid conditions (pH 3 - 5) or wide temperature ranges (30℃ - 80℃). Additionally, the Mc-CBHI (~70 kDa and ~3.6% of crude enzyme) had specific FPase and avicelase activities of 0.179 U/mg and 0.126 U/mg, respectively (which were about 40% - 50% activities of a commercial cellulase Accellerase-1000). These results demonstrated that the newly-found Mc-CBHI could become one of potential exoglucanase resources for related cellulolytic industrial applications....
摘要:SDS-PAGE was applied to determine trypsin activity and inhibition. After the hydrolysis by trypsin to substrate bovine serum albulnin (BSA) under different temperatures and pH, the hydrolysis degree of BSA was conducted using SDS-PAGE. From the quantitative analysis to the electrophoresis bands of BSA and its hydrolysis products in SDS-PAGE pattern, the change of trypsin activity was determined, and then the optimum temperature at 40°C and the optimum pH at pH 8.5 - 8.7 for trypsin activity were obtained. All the target bonds in BSA molecule could be hydrolyzed at the same time by trypsin. The inhibition was due to the binding of inhibitor to trypsin, which made it impossible for trypsin to touch the substrate protein. SDS-PAGE was demonstrated to be also an effect method for assaying the characteristics of trypsin activity and its inhibition....
摘要:Aim: To evaluate the functional relationship between the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes in the pathogenesis of human senile cataract lenses of non-diabetic patients. Methods: Total solubilized proteins from human cataract lens were compared with normal lens (control) by 2-Dimenstional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Proteins with different abundances were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Western blot analysis was used to verify the changes in expression of NOS3 and SOD2. A further functional association of NOS3 with SOD2 and other proteins was seen by STRING 8.3 databases. Results: In the 2-DE maps, the cataract and normal lens proteins migrated in the region of pH 3 - 10 with a relative molecular weight of 20 - 130 kDa. Approximately two protein spots with differential intensity were detected as NOS3 and SOD2 using MALDI-TOF-MS. Western blot analysis showed high expression of NOS3 in cataract and SOD2 in normal lens samples. String interaction network revealed strong interactions between NOS3 and SOD2 at high confidence score, which is helpful in characterization of functional abnormalities that may be a causative factor in the pathogenesis of cataract. Conclusion: This study will offer new avenues for mechanistic evaluation and future prevention of cataractogensis. However, large scale studies will be required to evaluate the effect of this interaction on the clinical outcome in human cataract....
摘要:A selective, sensitive, and convenient assay for human collagenase is required because of its implication in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and tumors. Here, a novel assay for human collagenase activity is described in which enzymatic degradation of native collagen or acetyl peptide is determined by using a fluorogenic reaction for oligopeptides. The oligopeptides are quantified spectrofluorometrically with either 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid or 1,2-dihydroxybenzen reaction in the presence of sodium periodate and sodium borate (pH 7 - 8). These reactions can selectively convert N-terminal Gly-containing oligopeptides and N-terminal Ile-containing oligopeptides to fluorescence (FL) compounds, respectively, but not proteins, acetyl peptides or amino acids. Under optimized conditions using 1.65 μM collagen IV or 1.5 mM Ac-GPQGI- AGQ as substrates, this assay exhibits a proportional relationship between FL intensities and human collagenase-3 (MMP-13) concentrations. It can assay endogenous collagenase activities in several biological samples, such as cultured human cells and cheek tissue....
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