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摘要:In this study, noise pollution assessments were performed along Marechal Deodoro Avenue and Batel Avenue, which are two major thoroughfares in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Eleven points were evaluated at Batel Avenue and 16 points at Marechal Deodoro Avenue. The results of the noise level measurements and the calculation of noise maps indicated that both thoroughfares are acoustically polluted. The simulated and measured noise levels, in the 27 evaluated points, exceed the limits established by law 10,625 of the city of Curitiba, which establishes acceptable levels for the comfort of the population in the external environment. With regard to the traffic composition in the areas under study, the vehicle flow was found to consist mostly of light vehicles, representing 88% of the total flow along Batel Avenue and 85% on Marshal Deodoro Street. Based on the noise maps and measured noise levels, it was found that the entire length of Marshal Deodoro Avenue and Batel Avenue are strongly affected by street noise, which is readily explained by the constant traffic, high vehicle flow (number of vehicles/hour) and high vehicle speed at some points of these thoroughfares....
摘要:It has been hypothesized that objective assessment for building acoustic conditions only may not always be representative of the users’ perception in occupied indoor spaces. This study objectively and subjectively examined indoor acoustic condition in rooms within students’ hostels in Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. The objective assessment considered the physical measurement of sound pressure level in the rooms in relation to the rooms’ physical characteristics like window to external wall area and window to floor area ratios. The subjective assessment considered the occupants’ perception of the acoustic condition in the rooms in relation to their personal characteristics like age, gender, body mass index, metabolic rate, and body skin area. The sound pressure level was measured in each of the randomly selected 44 rooms at 15 minute intervals between 7 hours and 19 hours daily through a period of eight weeks. The measurement was done with High Accuracy Digital Sound Noise Level Data Loggers placed at work plane at the centre of the rooms. The geometry of the rooms was documented through physical measurements. All the occupants of the selected rooms as well as the two adjoining rooms, amounting to 696 respondents, were purposively selected to fill a questionnaire regarding activities carried out in the rooms, the frequency of fenestration opening, the personal characteristics of the occupants and the rooms’ occupancy ratio. This study established a strong correlation between the objective and subjective assessments of the acoustic condition in the spaces. Moreover, out of all the occupants’ personal characteristics considered, it was the age that has a relationship with the occupants’ perception of the acoustic condition that is closest to significant level.The relationship between their perception and measured sound pressure level was slightly more pronounced among the male gender than the female with correlation coefficients of 0.115 and 0.096 respectively. This study concluded that none of the considered occupants’ personal characteristics can effectively predict their response to indoor acoustic condition in the spaces....
摘要:In this work, aqueous glycerol solutions are atomized to investigate the influence of the viscosity on the droplet size and the general atomization behavior in a setup using standing surface acoustic waves (sSAW) and a fluid supply at the boundary of the acoustic path. Depending on the fluid viscosity, the produced aerosols have a monomodal or polymodal size distribution. The mean droplet size in the dominant droplet fraction, however, decreases with increasing viscosity. Our results also indicate that the local wavefield conditions are crucial for the atomization process....
摘要:A set of dolphin echolocation signals previously collected from an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin in Kaneohe Bay, Hawai'i are decomposed using a matching pursuit algorithm to further investigate the role of four types of echolocation signals outlined elsewhere [1]. The method decomposes the echolocation signals into optimal linear expansions of waveforms, which are Gabor functions defined in a dictionary. The method allows for study of the changes in frequency content within a dolphin's functional bandwidth during discrimination tasks. We investigate the role of the functional bandwidth in terms of the signal energy levels and echolocations task performance. Furthermore, ROC analysis is applied to the relative energies of the matched waveforms to determine probability of discrimination. The results suggest that dolphins may discriminate by inspection of the relevant frequency differences between targets. In addition, the results from the ROC analysis provides insight into the role of the different classes of dolphin signals and of the importance of modification of the outgoing echolocation clicks, which may be fundamental to a dolphin's ability to identify and discriminate targets....
摘要:There is a new method of calculating the trajectory of sound waves (rays) in layered stratified speed of sound in ocean without dispersion. A sound wave in the fluid is considered as a vector. The amplitudes occurring at the boundary layers of the reflected and refracted waves are calculated according to the law of addition of vectors and using the law of conservation of energy, as well as the laws that determine the angles of reflection and refraction. It is shown that in calculating the trajectories, the reflected wave must be taken into account. The reflecting wave's value may be about 1 at certain angles of the initial wave output from the sours. Reflecting wave forms the so-called water rays, which do not touch the bottom and the surface of the ocean. The conditions of occurrence of the water rays are following. The sum of the angles of the incident and refracted waves (rays) should be a right angle, and the tangent of the angle of inclination of the incident wave is equal to the refractive index. Under these conditions, the refracted wave amplitude vanishes. All sound energy is converted into the reflected beam, and total internal reflection occurs. In this paper, the calculation of the amplitudes and beam trajectories is conducted for the canonical type of waveguide, in which the speed of sound is asymmetric parabola. The sound source is placed at the depth of the center of the parabola. Total internal reflection occurs in a narrow range of angles of exit beams from the source 43 style="white-space:nowrap;">° - 45 style="white-space:nowrap;">°. Within this range of angles, the water rays form and not touch the bottom and surface of ocean. Outside this range, the bulk of the beam spreads, touching the bottom and the surface of the ocean. When exit corners, equal and greater than 77 style="white-space:nowrap;">°, at some distance the beam becomes horizontal and extends along the layer, without leaving it. Calculation of the wave amplitudes excludes absorption factor. Note that the formula for amplitudes of the sound waves applies to light waves....
摘要:This comparative study acquaints the reader with some properties of the eighth and tenth new shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAWs) propagating along the free surface of the magnetoelectroelastic (6 mm) medium. These new nondispersive SH-SAWs cannot exist when the electromagnetic constant α is equal to zero. The piezoelectromagnetic SH bulk acoustic wave and the surface Bleustein-Gulyaev-Melkumyan (BGM) wave are also chosen for comparison. The main problem of this report is the demonstration of the fact that the new waves can propagate slower than the BGM wave. This problem can be very important due to the fact that among the other known SH-SAWs the BGM wave can propagate significantly slower than the corresponding SH bulk acoustic wave. Two new SH-SAWs are analytically and graphically studied in dependence on the electromagnetic constant α. For the graphical study, two (6 mm) composites are used: BaTiO3 CoFe2O4 and PZT-5H–Terfenol-D. For the second composite it is solidly demonstrated that for small values of α, the eighth new SH-SAW cannot exist and its velocity starts with zero at some small threshold value of α rapidly reaching the BGM-wave velocity. This means that a weak magnetoelectric effect can dramatically slow down the speed of either new SH-SAW. As a result, the studied new SH-SAWs can be suitable for creation of new technical devices to sense the magnetoelectric effect. For the analytical study, extreme and inflexion points were evaluated in the velocities' dependencies on the value of the electromagnetic constant α....
摘要:This paper is proposed to consider the propagation of sound waves in the liquid as a result of special deformation of the medium. Mechanical vibrations of the membrane, (diaphragm) creating a sound wave, transfer from layer to layer in medium without causing synchronous oscillations of the fluid particles. It can be assumed that the deformation of the liquid is similar to the driving force (pressure) in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the vibrating membrane. Usually, the running wave functions are used to describe the sound waves, but they do not contain the direction of propagation. It is proposed to consider that the amplitude of the wave is a vector coinciding with the vector tangent to the path of the wave. This would allow for a change of direction of propagation without changing its phase, in which the direction of wave is not present. It proposed a method of calculating a vector of amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted sound waves based on the laws of conservation of impulse and energy of the waves and the boundary conditions defined by Snell's law. It is shown that one of the two solutions of the wave equation does not apply to real physical process of sound wave's propagation in the liquid....
摘要:In this work the turbulence based acoustic sources and the corresponding wave propagation of fluctuating flow values in incompressible fluid flows are considered. Lighthill's and Curle's acoustic analogies are implemented in the open source computational fluid dynamics framework OpenFOAM. The main objective of this work is to visualize and localize the dominated sound sources and the resulting values of fluctuating pressure values within the computation domain representing the acoustical near field. This is all done on one mesh and during the iterative computation of the transient fluid flow. Finally the flow field and acoustical results of different simulation cases are presented and the properties of the shown method are discussed....
摘要:Aim: The aim is to compare the vocal fold vibration seen during lip and tongue trills with that seen during phonation of the sustained vowel /ε/, in terms of the periodicity of the EGG waveform and the amplitude of the EGG signal, in professional voice users. Study design: This was a quasi-experimental study. Methods: We used electroglottography (EGG) to compare the vocal fold vibration seen during tongue and lip trills with that seen during phonation of the sustained vowel /ε/, in terms of the EGG waveform periodicity and signal amplitude, in 10 classically trained, professional singers. The participants produced the sustained vowel /ε/ and performed tongue and lip trills at the same frequency and intensity. The periodicity of the waveform and the amplitude of the signal were visually analyzed by three blinded, experienced readers. To confirm the visual analysis results, we measured the jitter and shimmer of the signal and the frequency of variation in vocal fold vibration during the trill exercises. Results: The EGG waveform was classified as periodic for the sustained vowel phonation task and as quasi-periodic for the trill exercises, the vibration pattern repeating at approximately 24 Hz. Conclusion: The vibration of the vocal folds was modified according to the supraglottic movement in trills exercises....
摘要:In this paper, we report the diameter dependent ultrasonic characterization of wurtzite structured InAs semiconductor nanowires at the room temperature. In this work, we have calculated the non-linear higher order elastic constants of InAs nanowires validating the interaction potential model. The ultrasonic attenuation and velocity in the nanowires are determined using the elastic constants for different diameters of the nanowires. Where possible, the results are compared with the experiments. Finally, we have established the correlation between the size dependent thermal conductivity and the ultrasonic attenuation of the nanowires....
摘要:The ultrasonic degradation of methylene blue at a frequency of 490 kHz was carried out in the absence and presence of TiO2 or Al2O3 particle, and the effects of amounts of particle on the enhancement of degradation rate constant estimated by assuming first-order-kinetics were investigated. The degradation reaction was enhanced by particle addition, and the apparent degradation rate constant is proportional to the increase in amount of particle. In addition, the constant of proportionality is not influenced by degraded material and ultrasonic frequency. However, particle type influences the constant of proportionality, and the value of TiO2 particle is about 6 times as large as that of Al2O3 particle....
摘要:The analysis of acoustic emissions generated by the interaction between the wind and a building's facade of approximately 90 m high, located in the city of Montevideo, is presented. There is a helipad on the roof of the building. It is surrounded by a perforated plate (4.87 m high). Once the building was finished, complaints about the noise annoyance were expressed by some neighbors and working population in the building. Measurements of sound pressure levels on the site have been done. Also the possible acoustic sources were physically characterized. The noise source was identified: the acoustical emissions were associated with a phenomenon caused by wind speeds above 20 m/s from different directions, generating high sounds pressure levels in octave band of 4000 Hz, after its passage through the perforated plate on the contour of the roof. These studies were complemented by measurements in wind tunnel using a physical model built with the same plate installed in the building, which allowed verifying the results....
摘要:In both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, the move toward lighter structures has resulted in an increase in structural vibration and interior noise. Porous materials have been proposed as acoustic absorbers to reduce this noise. This paper discusses the development of equipment at the NASA Glenn Research Center for characterizing the acoustic performance of porous materials: a flow resistance apparatus to measure the pressure drop across a specimen of porous material, and a standing wave tube that uses a pair of stationary microphones to measure the normal incidence acoustic impedance of a porous material specimen. Specific attention is paid to making this equipment as flexible as possible in terms of specimen sizes need for testing to accommodate the small or irregular sizes often produced during the development phase of a new material. In addition, due to the unknown performance of newly developed material, safety features are included on the flow resistance apparatus to contain test specimens that shed particles or catastrophically fail during testing. Results of measurements on aircraft fiberglass are presented to verify the correct performance of the equipment....
摘要:This theoretical work discovers four new dispersive shear-horizontal (SH) waves propagating in the transversely isotropic piezoelectromagnetic plate of class 6 mm. In this work, the following mechanical, electrical, and magnetic boundary conditions at both the upper and lower free surfaces of the piezoelectromagnetic plate are utilized: the mechanically free surface, continuity of both the electrical and magnetic potentials, and continuity of both the electrical and magnetic inductions. The solutions for the new SH-wave velocities (dispersion relations) are found in explicit forms and then graphically studied. The graphical investigation has soundly illuminated several interesting peculiarities that were also discussed. The piezoelectromagnetic materials, also known as the magnetoelectroelastic media, are famous as smart materials because the electrical subsystem of the materials can interact with the magnetic subsystem via the mechanical subsystem, and vice versa. Therefore, it is very important to know the wave characteristics of such (composite) materials because of possible constitution of new technical devices with a high level of integration. It is obvious that the plate waves can be preferable for further miniaturization of the technical devices and used for the nondestructive testing and evaluation of thin piezoelectromagnetic films....
摘要:In this paper, we try to use the coating of effective electrode surface and change the direction of polarization to design the mode shape piezoelectric motors of the first three modes. We also com-pare the gain of the mode shape piezoelectric motors with respect to the normal shape piezoelectric motor, including rotational speed, loading ability, torque, phase angle conversion and efficiency. According to the results of theoretical and simulation analysis, we have found that the gain of the mode shape piezoelectric stators are larger than the normal shape piezoelectric stator on average. According to the results of experiments, we found that the gain of the rotational speed, loading ability, torque, driving phase angle conversion and efficiency of the mode shape (MS1 - 3) piezoelectric motors are higher than the normal shape piezoelectric motor (NS) under driving condition of the second vibration mode. Also, the gain of the rotational speed and loading ability of the mode shape 2 (MS2) piezoelectric motor are higher than other shapes piezoelectric motors (NS, MS1 and MS3) under driving condition of the second vibration mode. The used maximum rotational speed of the mode shape 2 (MS2) piezoelectric motor is up to 946 rpm under conditions of 180 Vp-p driving voltage, 10.7 kHz driving frequency, 0o driving phase angle and 13.0 gw net weight. The maximum loading ability and torque of the mode shape 2 (MS2) piezoelectric motor is respectively 451 gw and 0.91 mkgw-m under conditions of 180 Vp-p driving voltage, 10.7 kHz driving frequency, 0o driving phase angle and 173 rpm rotational speed. And the gain of efficiency (output power) and maximum loading ability (torque) of the mode shape 2 (MS2) piezoelectric motor are respectively 2.28 and 1.54 with respect to the normal shape piezoelectric motor under conditions of 180 Vp-p driving voltage, 10.7 kHz driving frequency and 0o driving phase angle. According to the results of the experiments, we have finally found that the piezoelectric motors (NS and MS1 - 3) can be driven only by the second vibration mode because the stator can produce elliptical motion and allows the rotor to generate orientation rotation. However, the first vibration mode can allow the rotor to be rotated very fast but it can't make the rotation of the rotor orientation. Furthermore, we also found that the rotor can't rotate by the third vibration mode because its vibration energy is absorbed by the structure itself, so causing the rotor stagnation....
摘要:The experiment involves creating a sound wave that propagates down a pipe with 8 transducers attached at equally spaced intervals of 0.01016 m. The numerical method—the Cross Correlation Method, used to solve for the phase component, creates a high correlation value, but the speed of sound varies immensely. The method involves a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the collected data, which is used to find the phase of the sound wave, and the slope of the position versus time graph, which is used to calculate the speed of sound. This high correlation value shows that the data are correct, but the numerical method for analyzing the data is incorrect....
摘要:The problem of diffraction of a plane acoustic wave by a finite soft (rigid) cone is investigated. This one is formulated as a mixed boundary value problem for the three-dimensional Helmholtz equation with Dirichlet (Neumann) boundary condition on the cone surface. The diffracted field is sought as expansion of unknown velocity potential in series of eigenfunctions for each region of the existence of sound pressure. The solution of the problem then is reduced to the infinite set of linear algebraic equations (ISLAE) of the first kind by means of mode matching technique and orthogonality properties of the Legendre functions. The main part of asymptotic of ISLAE matrix element determined for large indexes identifies the convolution type operator amenable to explicit inversion. This analytical treatment allows one to transform the initial diffraction problem into the ISLAE of the second kind that can be readily solved by the reduction method with desired accuracy depending on a number of truncation. All these determine the analytical regularization method for solution of wave diffraction problems for conical scatterers. The boundary transition to soft (rigid) disc is considered. The directivity factors, scattering cross sections, and far-field diffraction patterns are investigated in both soft and rigid cases whereas the main attention in the near-field is focused on the rigid case. The numerically obtained results are compared with those known for the disc....
摘要:Two additional solutions of new shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves (SH-SAWs) are found in this theoretical report. The SH-SAW propagation is managed by the free surface of a solid when it has a direct contact with a vacuum. The studied smart solid represents the transversely isotropic piezoelectromagnetic (magnetoelectroelastic or MEE) medium that pertains to crystal symmetry class 6 mm. In the developed theoretical treatment, the solid surface must be mechanically free. Also, the magnetic and electrical boundary conditions at the common interface between a vacuum and the solid surface read: the magnetic and electrical displacements must continue and the same for the magnetic and electrical potentials. To obtain these two new SH-SAW solutions, the natural coupling mechanisms such as eμ-hα and εμ-α2 present in the coefficient of the magnetoelectromechanical coupling (CMEMC) can be exploited. Based on the obtained theoretical results, it is possible that a set of technical devices (filters, sensors, delay lines, lab-on-a-chip, etc.) based on smart MEE media can be developed. It is also blatant that the obtained theoretical results can be helpful for the further theoretical and experimental studies on the propagation of the plate SH-waves and the interfacial SH-waves in the MEE (composite) media. The most important issue can be the influence of the magnetoelectric effect on the SH-wave propagation. One must also be familiar with the fact that the surface, interfacial, and plate SH-waves can frequently represent a common tool for nondestructive testing and evaluation of surfaces, interfaces, and plates, respectively....
摘要:In this paper, we want to make a new type linear piezoelectric motor by mode shape coating or effective electrode surface coating. The mode shape is derived from the mechanical boundary conditions of the linear piezoelectric motor. We only have access to the first three modes of formas, the effective electrode surface coating basis, as well as with the linear piezoelectric motor of normal shape do comparison. Next, we will inspect their gain or axial velocity through theoretical analysis, simulation and experiment. According to the results of the theoretical analysis, we have found that the gain or axial velocity of the linear piezoelectric motors of mode shape is much larger than the linear piezoelectric motors of normal shape. However, according to the results of simulation and experiments, we have found that the gain or axial velocity of the linear piezoelectric motors of mode shape is much greater than the linear piezoelectric motors of normal shape, which is about 1.2 to 1.4 times. The linear piezoelectric motor of mode shape 3 has the fastest axial velocity, which is about -48 mm/s and 48 mm/s under conditions of 180 Vp-p driving voltage, 21.2 kHz driving frequency (the third vibration modal), 25 gw loading and the position of loading or mass at x = 5 mm & 45 mm respectively. And its axial velocity is about 1.4 times the linear piezoelectric motor of normal shape under the same conditions. Overall, the mode shape coating helps to enhance the gain or axial velocity of the linear piezoelectric motor....
摘要:It is shown that the estimation of nonlinear distortions in the various circuits based on the measurement of the ratio of the dispersion and correlation functions does not depend on the level of additive noise acting on the input (or output) of nonlinear circuit. The proposed theoretical method is confirmed by experimental measurements....
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