In order to explore the effects of rhizosphere aeration on matrix characteristics, the effects of concentrations of CO_2 and O_2 on enzyme activities, matrix nutrients and plant growth were investigated by comparing aeration cultivation (Z1) with airproof cultivation (D1) and normal cultivation (CK) in some aspects, during the whole growth and development stages of cucumber. The results show that the matrix ventilation is significantly improved in the Z1 treatment, and CO_2 content is decreased by 48.21%, while O_2 content is increased by 5.87%. Activities of various enzymes in the Z1 treatment are higher than those of the D1 and CK treatments, respectively, including phosphatase (by 38.01% and 18.3%), invertase (by 34.81% and 20.87%), dehydrogenase (38.41% and 22.52%), and urease (by 11.19% and 7.67% ). Moreover, obvious increases are found in other indexes, such as the available N and P contents, and the dry matter accumulation of plants. As a conclusion, aeration cultivation could boost the enzyme activities, increase nutrient content in the matrix, and promote the growth of cucumber plants.