Objective To investigate the clincal characteristics and treatment of infective endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. Methods Total of 20 patients (20 eyes) with infective endophthalmitis after cataract surgery were selected from January 2012 to January 2016 in People's Hospital of Longgang District and Shenzhen Eye Hospital. All the 20 cases were accepted with insurface anesthesia of vancomycin intravitreal injection, 6 severe cases accepted vitreous body surgery with conventional closed three channel 23 G vitreous body resection surgery combined with silicone oil tamponade. Silicone oil removal was performed at 3-6 months after operation. The degree of eye pain, corneal opacity, anterior chamber purulent exudate, vitreous seepage, the improvement of symptoms such as eye condition, routine blood test of were investigated on patients with 1 week after vitrectomy (second operation) and 1 week after silicone oil (third operation), and investigated the best corrected visual acuity of patients. Results After the second operation, pain of 20 patients was relieved, keratopnea disappeared, preatrial purulent exudate disappeared, glass body was transparent; the eyes were visible at the base of the nipple, the pale was red, the retina was flat, and the center of the macula was visible. Patients following up for 3-6 months after the third operation were nonrecurrent. Compared with the second operation, the differences of the best orthodontic vision of 1 week after the second operation and 1 week after the third operation were all statistically significant (t = 76.0, P =0.019; t = 53.74, P = 0.027). Conclusions Patients with infectious endophthalmitis after cataract intraoperative and postoperative should choose vancomycin in combination with other antibacterial drugs to anti-infection, and vancomycin injection drug in vitreous surgery, vitrectomy and silicone oil filling should be adopted for severe cases, symptoms of patients after operation improved significantly, and eyesight had significantly improved.