The residents who had lived for at least 5 years and aged over 20 years old were sampled from urban to rural districts of Jiangsu Province with a stratified cluster sampling technique. B mode ultrasonography and thyroid function determination were carried out in 6 128 persons. The location, diameter, number, boundary, and calcification in thyroid nodules were described by using 7.5 MHz/50 mm transducer of thyroid ultrasonography. TSH was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Free triiodothyronine(FT3)and free thyroxin(FT4)were measured when TSH was abnormal. The crude prevalence of thyroid nodules was 21.12% in total population, 14.55% in male, and 25.24% in female. The standardized prevalence was 15.69%, 11.20%, and 20.40%, respectively. The prevalence was lower in male than in female, and increased with age(P＜0.05). Thyroid nodules in Jiangsu Province were highly prevalent and more attention should be paid to the follow-up, early diagnosis, and treatment.