Objective To understand the situation of rabies exposure and self-management behaviors among primary school students from rabies epidemic areas in China. Methods This population-based investigation was conducted in Guizhou and Guangdong provinces which had been severe epidemic areas of rabies in China from January 2007 to May 2008. Primary schools from two prefectural, two county, four township and four village levels were selected in the 2 provinces.Students were sampled from each grade of the 12 schools to collect information on post-exposure prophylaxis. Results In the 2408 primary school students interviewed, 290 person/times exposure were found from 2007 to 2008. The self wound-treatment rates was 47.93%, with 16.55% of themwent to the clinic for care-seeking initiatively and 63.79% informed their parents or teachers. However 23.10% of the students did nothing after exposure. Students in Guangdong province had lower exposure rate and higher rate of good management behaviors than in Guizhou. No significant statistical difference was found between the self-management behaviors among male and female students or among different levels of primary schools. The proportion of disinfection on wounds with alcohol and seeking medical treatment in rabies clinic initiatively were both low in all grades of the students but the proportion of telling their parents or teachers about the exposure among children was high in all grades of students. Conclusion Some students after rabies exposure did not have any disposal in Guangdong and Guizhou provinces. Related education should be strengthened.