Objective To investigate the status of infection and distribution of rabies virus (RV) in different epidemic areas in China. Methods Brain specimens from animals and suspected patients were collected at the districts of high-, medium- and low incidence rates of human rabies and detected by both direct Immunofluorescence assay (DFA) and RT-PCR. Results 254 of 3007 specimens of dog brains showed RV positive by DFA (positive rate of 8.4% ). Among these 254 samples, 78 showed positive (positive rate of 30.7% ) by RT-PCR. 93 specimens from dogs and cats that had attacked human beings, 63 of them showed positive by DFA (positive rate of 67.7%) and all of them were also positive by RT-PCR. In addition, RV could also be detected in Apodemus agrarius,ferret badger, and suspected patients specimens from the districts under survey. There was no statistical difference between the infection rates of RV in different provinces and regions with different incidence of rabies. Conclusion There might be a relatively high infection rate of RV among the domestic dogs/cats in the endemic areas in China. Wild animals might have been infected with RV in the districts under survey.