Based on statistics and integrate analysis of data on carbonate basins in the world, we discuss characteristics of carbonate reservoirs, distribution of petroleum resources in different geologic periods in six regions of enriched oil and gas. High quality reservoirs in Middle East-European region, Central Asia- Russia-North America, Africa, South America, China-Asia Pacific region, and South Asia-Pacific region are distributed in Jurassic-Cretaceous, upper Paleozoic, Cretaceous-Cenozoic, Cretaceous, lower-Paleozoic, and Cenozoic, respectively. Three types of reservoir lithology are limestone, dolomite and chalk,in which lime- stone and dolomite are dominant. The older age the reservoir is, the larger proportion the dolomite is;but the younger age the reservoir is, the larger proportion the limestone is. Distribution of reservoirs is con- trolled by deposited facies. The particles beaches, tidal flat and lagoon are profitable to form the dolomite. The deposited facies for high quality reservoir formation is bioconstructed. Distribution of petroleum resources is controlled by carbonate space. Most of petroleum resource is distributed from Carboniferous to Tertiary,the oil is dominated in Cretaceous,the gas is Permian and Cretaceous. Additionally,the abundant petroleum resources are also disturbed in Carboniferous,Jurassic and Paleocene.