Shanghai is a national famous historical and cultural city and it has established a three-level historical conservation system. However, there are still lots of historical streets, blocks and buildings without legal protection status. In 2013, Shanghai Municipal Bureau for Urban Planning and Land Resources Administration launched ‘the Deepening and Expansive Research of Preservation Objects and Scope for Conservation Areas in Shanghai’. The goal of the research is to incorporate the historical and cultural neighborhoods and buildings into the legal protection system based on the overall investigations of Shanghai central city, Puxi area. This article systematically introduces the foundation and methods of the research, analyzing the framework, standard and principles of it, listing the recommended names of 134 historical blocks, 20 historical streets and ifnally proposes some suggestions on how to improve the preservation task.