In recent years, historical disasters study focuses on the spatial distribution, time series and case recovery from the perspective of geography, relatively speaking, case recovery needs to be strengthened. According to historical records of drought, locust plague, flood and other disasters during 1526-1530 in China, with drought and locust plague as the main line, this paper aims to restore its spatial and temporal evolution process and correlation, to explore the social impacts and reveal the climatic background. The results show that: 1) The counties affected by this three disasters fluctuated over time, the difference was that locust plague presented a feature of"single peak like a spoon upside down"characteristics and "slowly rise and sharply decline"evolution trend, the disaster reached a peak in 1529;drought showed a feature of double peak like stairs, and reached a peak in 1528;however, flood took on a feature of slight fluctuation and without extreme peak every year. 2) Drought was widely distributed in the eastern part of China, and the north-south differentiation was obvious, the south area was mainly located in the Yangtze River basin, while the north area was located in the Huang-Huai-Hai River basin, Henan, Hebei were the hardest hit. Locust plague distribution was relatively concentrated, and the core area was located in Northern China, where Henan, Hebei and Shandong were the worst-hit areas. Flood distribution was relatively dispersed, mainly in the middle-lower Yangtze River; 3) In terms of the disaster temporal and spatial relation, famine, plague and three disaster existed spatial correlation and time continuity, locusts and drought had the great connection. 4) The nymph grasshopper distribution area and the locust plague area indicated the source and diffusion zone of the locust disaster was related to drainage pattern, locust migration direction was mainly toward north, with the distance attenuation, northern limit line existed for locusts, which could be related to the prevailing wind direction of North China at that time and the locust itself likes dry, sick of dampress. 5) The three disasters occurred on the transitional phase on the next year of El Nino in 1525 and the year before last El Nino in 1531, the climate was relatively warm during the cold period.