Objective To investigate the prevalence of behavioral problems and explore their relevant factors in children aged 6 ～ 11 years in Shandong province. Methods A total of 2 635 children aged 6 ～ 11 years from 16 cities of Shandong province were investigated by multi-stage stratified random sampling and assessed with Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) . Results The prevalence of behavior problems was 11. 1％ in children,and there was no statistically significant difference between 10. 8％ in boys and 11. 8％ in girls (P > 0. 05) . However,the differences of behavior problem prevalences among ages were significant (P < 0. 05) . Logistic regression revealed that father's hobby,family income,father's health,number of friends and quality of companion relationship might contribute to the behavior problems in children (P < 0. 05) . Conclusion The prevalence of behavioral problems in children is at a high level,which may be correlated with many factors with family factors as an important one.