A novel composite (GO@MIL-101) containing metal organic framework (MIL-101) and graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by hydrothermal method. The effects of GO concentration on the composite morphology and structure were investigated. The doping of GO affected the crystallization of MIL-101 and its integrity reduced with the increase in GO concentration. The crystal size decreased and the agglomeration phenomenon became significant. GO@MIL-101 can be used to remove Cr(Ⅵ) from aqueous solution, and the removal kinetics can be fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum Cr(Ⅵ) uptake capacity obtained by Langmuir adsorption isotherm depended on the GO concentration. When the GO concentration of 2% [based on the mass of Cr(NO3)3·9H2O] was applied, GO@MIL-101 exhibited higher Cr(Ⅵ) uptake capacity compared to MIL-101 due to its larger specific surface area and pore volume. The removal of Cr(Ⅵ) was accompanied by the release of3NO- and the decrease of pH. The charge balance analysis indicated that the removal mechanism involved in the Cr(Ⅵ) removal by MIL-101 and GO@MIL-101 was mainly ion exchange. The removed Cr(Ⅵ) existed in the form of24CrO- in the adsorbent.