A new stegosaur species, Jiangjunosaurus junggarensis, gen. et sp. nov., is erected based on a specimen collected from the Upper Jurassic upper section of the Shishugou Formation in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China. It represents the first stegosaur from the Jurassic of Xinjiang and increases the diversity of the dinosaur fauna in the Shishugou Formation. The new genus is characterized by symmetrical and proportionally wide tooth crowns, a sub-rectangular axial neural spine seen in lateral view, and large openings on the lateral surfaces of the cervical centra. A preliminary character analysis suggests that this new taxon is more derived than the Middle Jurassic stegosaur Huayangosaurus but more primitive than most other known stegosaur species.