To investigate the influence of wet conditions on vehicle braking behavior, a numerical-analytical method was proposed for the simulation of tire hydroplaning and frictional energy dissipation. First, a finite element model of tire hydroplaning was established using the coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian method, including a pneumatic tire model and a textured asphalt pavement model. Then, the frictional force on the tire-pavement interface at different speeds was calculated by the model. Based on vehicle braking mechanism and frictional energy dissipation, a calculation method for braking distance was proposed based on a three-stage braking process. The proposed method was verified by comparing the calculated hydroplaning speed and braking distance with field test results. Then, vehicle braking distances and wet friction coefficients were calculated under different conditions. The results show that thinner water film, a more complex tread pattern and higher tire inflation pressure all contribute to the vehicle braking performance; moreover, the pavement texture has obvious influence on vehicle braking behavior, especially at a high speed. The proposed method shows great effectiveness in predicting vehicle braking behavior on wet asphalt pavements.