To overcome the shortcomings of the energy consumption prediction models in the application during the design stage, a quick prediction model for energy consumption is proposed based on the decoupling method. Taking typical residential and office buildings in hot summer and cold winter zones as research objects, the influence factors on building energy consumption are classified into intrinsic factors and operational factors on the basis of the heat transfer principle. Then, using the intrinsic factors as the fundamental variables and operational factors as the modified variables, the quick prediction model for the buildings in typical cold and hot zones is proposed based on the decoupling method and the accuracy of the proposed model is verified. The results show that compared to the simulation results of EnergyPlus, the relative error of the prediction model is less than 1.5%; compared with the real operating data of the building, the relative error is 13.14% in 2011 and 8.56% in 2012 due to the fact that the coincidence factor becomes larger than the design value about 16% in 2011 and 13% in 2012. The finding reveals that the proposed model has the advantages of rapid calculation compared with EnergyPlus and Design Builder when predicting building energy consumption in building designs. The energy consumption prediction model is of great practical value in optimal operation and building designs.