The purpose of this paper is to investigate spatial-temporal pattern and evolution rules of urban-rural residential land transition of Youyi County in 1954-2015. The methods include spatial discrete and fractal dimension measurements. The results show that, 1） the transformation of urban-rural residential land experienced three stages, including the leading period of rural development, the growth period of urban-rural development and the adjustment period of urban development. 2） the leading period of rural development presents that urban-rural residential land scale increases rapidly, mainly in small rural residential land, with the features of mild concentration and the tertiary structure of county, township and village. 3） the growth period of urban-rural development presents that urban-rural residential land increases in the same pace, mainly in small and medium-sized residential land, and tends to distribute equally but still possess some randomness. The hierarchical system is a stable tertiary structure. 4） the adjustment period of urban development presents that urban residential land continues to increase, while rural residential land decreased significantly. The residential land distribution is more balanced, dominated by large size residential land. The hierarchical system gradually reduces to twotier structures which are county and township. In conclusion, the transformation of urban-rural residential land has certain historical inevitability, which can provide theoretical basis for urban-rural residential land management.